Wednesday, 14 March 2018

The Grave Dangers and Pitfalls of the Charismatic Movement in Zambian Catholicism Today


Siize Punabantu

Both my parents were devout Catholics. This of course meant that I was raised Catholic. Our family attended St Ignatius Parish in the 1970s. As Catholics we tend to begin to bring our children to church very early, often while they are still in diapers. It’s not uncommon to see a parent cradling a baby in their arms whilst seated or standing in the pews in church.  

With Father Prokof, Parish Priest, St Ignatius
circa 1973
I believe many people who are spiritually inclined become so because they have faced many challenges in their lives and are often saddled with a very deep sense of insecurity for which they can only cope with through their faith. Spiritualism is often driven deeper by pivotal experiences such as hardship, loss of employment, good or bad dreams, which are often interpreted to present a specific meaning or symbolism. The Charismatic movement is not a new phenomenon. It existed in Zambia as early as the 1970s. In those days they were probably referred to as something else like Ba Mzimu (those of the spirit). They were found predominantly in the komboni and the religious places located there. Most of the leaders of these spiritual groups were men and they had a loyal band of male and female followers. During a normal mass at their parish congregants sit in neatly organised pews, listen to the sermon and the occasional hymn from the choir, and stand in an orderly line to receive Holy Communion. Instead charismatics in those days would sit a person down, and would explain their problems to the elder spiritualist, which often included the personal challenges they were facing and what they saw in their dreams. He would listen intently, then begin to explain what the various symbols the person saw in their dreams meant, then he would relate this to the challenges the person was facing in their life and the fears they had described in detail. He would then offer the solution. A person would be made to stand or sit and he would begin to lay hands on them and pray, the members of his group would join in and surround the person with hands extended all of them praying at the same time. They prayed vehemently, some would break out into tongues and this would go on for what seemed an eternity, probably thirty minutes or more. Sometimes holy water would be brought in, in a round metal dish and sprinkled generously over the person. At other times incense would be burned spread around the room. After this intense session the exhausted group would retreat to their respective corners and their elder would then explain how the persons problems had been dealt with, what they should do henceforth and they would be encouraged to read the Bible and pray. The person would appear calmer more at peace and sometimes the holy water from the dish was bottled and given for them to take home. The elders would dispense advice on spiritual matters, on finances, difficulties, on what or where to invest, on friendships, on marriage – it seemed there was no area in which their expertise was lacking. If a woman wondered where her husband was the times he came home late at night the elder would close his eyes and begin to describe where the husband would go, and eventually describe another woman. Without proof of any kind except the fact that he was a man of God his words were taken in willingly by a vulnerable and trusting mind. This kind of intervention could easily cause havoc and carelessly sow seeds of mistrust in any healthy marriage. They dispensed advice, gave interpretations of dreams and counselled with a sense of personal authority. They could be influential and sometimes controlling, especially with the view that their advice was coming from God. They were not called charismatics back then,  and they could offer good works and have a positive impact on a persons life, but they could also cause significant harm. After consultations, some elders took financial donations happily while others refused them saying they were doing Gods work. 

A charismatic who enters a family’s life and offers a wife or husband good advice will be known immediately because it will have a positive effect on a marriage and lead to a couple experiencing a happier more fulfilled life together.

The opposite is true when the charismatic's entry has the opposite effect. When a troubled person becomes paired with a spiritual elder, charismatic prayer warrior or spiritual adviser of any age and any gender, because of the dependency that evolves it is very easy for the relationship to develop into what will appear like a platonic emotional affair because the insecurities and vulnerabilities of the person seeking help. This is why such relationships tend to be professional either a psychiatrist, trained counselor or ordained priest. This officialdom and training helps to ensure the person who provides relief or service to a needy person facing some kind of trial whether psychological, spiritual or physical is aware of certain boundaries and trained to avoid the pitfalls that can lead to the victim seeking help being taken advantage of in various ways. Emotional affairs are platonic, can take place between any two people of the same or different gender where one who is vulnerable becomes psychologically dependent on the other to the extent that the advice they are given whether good or bad becomes law. Eventually the insecure person becomes psychologically dependent and often cannot make individual, self ascribed decisions that are truly in their own interest. Every decision of importance now can only be made by the new dominant charismatic who in a sense has taken over their will and therefore must be consulted. This can lead to changes is mindset, personality and to rebelliousness. Where a spouse could be reasoned with before and solutions found instead, bolstered by their now personal prayer warrior or spiritual adviser with whom a stronger mental and emotional bond has been made, an ill advised husband or wife can sometimes make bad decisions. Untrained charismatics can cause untold disruptions in a marriage leading to very unnecessary tensions between a husband and wife, and instead of uplift a marriage can even cause separation. Its not because the charismatic is a bad person with ill intent rather its because the charismatic is not a trained marriage counselor or expert to be able to give advice on relationships, marriage or on how a family's investments should take place. Consequently, a charismatic's spiritual involvement with the family as a prayer warrior can prove terribly disruptive, lead to immense grief and catastrophe. Since the charismatic is not trained to remain neutral having befriended either the husband or wife they may become biased and begin to believe only one spouse's half of the reasons for problems faced in a marriage. This can lead to the charismatic who is now highly influential over one spouse re-enforcing instead of neutralizing  his or her insecurities and dispensing untrained advice that will have negative results. Consequently, a charismatic's influence can single-handedly waylay a spouse, separate him or her from the family with uneducated advice. Using the influence gained over the spouse a charismatic can effectively push a relationship and marriage to the point of destruction for no reason other than lack of proper training and experience in how to handle a married couple and their real and perceived problems. This is why, despite the focus of charismatic being on spiritual interventions, it is imperative that they receive training and qualifications in diverse areas.

Why place an emphasis on the need for the parish office to follow up interventions by receiving reports on outcomes of charismatic prayer warriors entering the homes of parishioners? Charismatic prayer warriors essentially focus on the spiritual. However, the Bible clearly states that not everyone is spiritually clean enough to lay hands on others in prayer. In spirituality there is holiness and unholiness, cleanliness and uncleanliness, good and evil. These are known as a tree is know by its fruit. If a charismatic prayer warrior enters the home of a parishioner to pray for a family and intercede, if they are clean, the fruits of their presence and intervention will be holiness, improved relations between family members, harmony between a married couple. However, if a charismatic prayer warrior enters the home of a parishioner and instead of concord between family members there is instead discord, instead of peace there are illnesses and family members start to fall sick one after the other, family who were close before stop speaking to each other, there are calamities and miscarriage, instead of improved relations between husband and wife there is increased conflict, instead of the couple becoming closer the family is instead broken apart, rather than attending mass every Sunday as they did before members of the family stop going to church, instead of the family sleeping well there is an increase in restless sleep and bad dreams, these are indications of the presence of an unclean spirit and that the charismatic prayer warrior unbeknownst to herself may be unclean and therefore unfit to either lay hands on or enter the home of parishioners to provide interventions until he or she is prayed for and made clean. It means the parish will become aware of this through the report and ensure that the charismatic prayer warrior is monitored, prayed for and cleansed before she enters the homes of innocent parishioners who believe she is a charismatic prayer warrior there to help them and their families when in fact he or she is unfit and will instead of help, will hurt those families. These are very real dangers. Without formal checks and balances such as these the Catholic Church will be unable to protect the families of its parishioners and shield them from real and potential harm.

When Jesus Christ died on the Cross Christians believe he paid the ransom for all of humanity's sins. Therefore, when a person is in difficulty and sets aside more time to read the Bible, fast, meditate, hold vigil and pray to Christ, when their prayer is answered, there are no later obligations you may now be tied to because your ransom was already paid. You can continue attending mass on Sunday with your burden lifted having received God's favour. On the other hand a pitfall to be wary of is that when a person is facing a difficulty in their life and they approach another human being to intercede for them because they are perceived more prayerful or it is believed they are spiritually gifted it is important for a person not to be naive about the situation they may be getting themselves into. Having asked for help from another human being they may be called upon to pray with them several times, introduced to other prayer warriors and invited to sessions with the spiritual social group. When the prayer is answered and the difficulty goes away it may not be easy for the person to decide to now rest and simply continue the comforting routine of attending mass on Sunday and receiving holy communion. Depending on the character of the human being who interceded for the person; they may now be considered to owe a debt. They may want to maintain their hold on the person. They may call on them incessantly to continue to attend prayers, to join sessions with their spiritual group, may ask for financial assistance, for gifts, may ask you to dress a certain way, discontinue certain relationships. Even though the person may no longer want to continue on this course and simply wants to go home and spend time with their family, or simply wants to worship on Sunday and pray at home individually in their own cognizance they find they cannot do so because of the spiritual favour that they received and the perceived debt they owe. The person is consequently now a co-opted member of something they may not have intended to become part of or committed to. They may be caught in a cult like structure from which the spiritual favour they received from their answered prayer, fear and their conscience will now not let them escape. These are some of the dangers and potential pitfalls of having human beings as intercessors.

No marriage is perfect, each has its ups and downs. Many married women in households today struggle to understand their husbands and the shortcomings or problems they have to endure to the point of frustration. They will approach intercessors, and people they trust for prayers and marriage counseling hoping to use them to fix things exposing themselves to all kinds of potential misdirection. But the Bible gives every married woman the ultimate solution for how to gain control of her husband. This solution is in just one humble line in Ephesians which says: wives submit to your husbands as to the Lord. In other words the Bible is revealing to wives the psychological mechanism by which they take control of their husbands. The problem is that when modern day women see the word submit, instead of "take control of him", because of having a big ego or pride, they instead see "I should compromise myself" or "I should subjugate myself" and consequently they refuse to do it and their marriages inevitably fail. Submit to him, to a wife, should translate to take control of him. If a husband wrongs his wife and contritely, he genuinely asks for her forgiveness; then accepting his forgiveness is submitting to him and consequently she takes control of him, gets her way and the marriage moves from gloom to happiness. Wives therefore need to avoid being misdirected by their egos and master the art of submission and how it works in their favour. The art of submission for a wife is the act of taking control. They do this by understanding this scripture and applying it in order to take control of their marriages to gain the happiness and successful lives they deserve. Men are hard wired to be providers. They will put their wife and children before themselves, even be willing to toil, live it a bit rough, go without to ensure they are well and happy. When a wife submits to her husband, it simply means she loves him, nurtures him, genuinely tries to understand him, tends to his needs, regularly shows him affection, believes in his hopes, ideas and ambitions and demonstrates she is loyal to him. This is easy to do when you are truly in love with him, and consequently why marriages in the early years are often effortlessly very happy. When he feels this love and loyalty he is effectively owned by his wife. When she wants something from him it is not merely asking for it that gets it done; it is her ability to convey why she wants it, her longing for it, ability to make him see how important it is to her and how happy achieving it will make her. If you and your husband have competing projects you are investing in and you want the family to prioritize your project, if you go to your husband and demand or command he stop his project; this is confrontational. For a man you are basically asking him to resist you. You will argue and he will not agree with you. If you persist it will become a heartbreaking trial for you, while it is merely an indefinitely long game of resistance for him. He will not tire and is unlikely to see your long term pain. However, if you go to him and first submit by telling him you like his project, the planning and thought he has put into it; then tell him compellingly how much you long to see your project completed first and how happy it will make you. He will suspend or ditch his project and pursue yours to please you. As a wife, when you learn how submission works and how to effectively apply it, you can always remain in control of your marriage and your husband.

A clever wife hones her submission methodology over the years gaining greater insights into what makes her husband tick, learning what makes him pay attention, what makes him smile, what makes him laugh and what sets him at ease. A husband to whom a wife has submitted is owned by his wife. He will put her on a pedestal in his life, adore her and place her dreams and happiness before his own. He will do anything she wants. She will receive anything she wants from him even if he must forgo plenty to help her achieve her dream or project. She simply needs to know the method to use to ask for what she wants by essentially being able to convey to him how meaningful and important it is to her. A woman who understands the power submission gives a wife will learn to find joy in it and will consequently appear to everyone as a wife who enjoys her husband and is genuinely happy in her marriage. But if a wife believes to get what she wants from her husband the means to do this is to be confrontational, to compete with him, to continuously victimize or punish him, show him she is better than he is as her means of subjugating him, this is the opposite of the advice given in the Bible, the marriage will be unhappy and fraught with troublesome issues. Men are hard wired to view confrontations as challenges and will respond to them, even subconsciously, through resistance; just as they do in sport against an opposing team. It becomes sport and a frustrated wife will find month after month, year after year her husband doesn't get tired, and he positions himself on the best place on the playing field. He will dodge his wife's leash repeatedly. She will find she cannot bring him to heel and over time frustration will grow. Eventually a breaking point will be reached. He will not see the wife's frustration because confrontation for a man triggers the same feelings as a challenge so men are hard wired to just keep playing to the point of appearing insensitive. But the husband is not being insensitive. To the wife these are serious issues close to her heart, but because they are conveyed through passive or active aggression, to him he is just playing the sport the wife began when she tried to get her way through confrontation and trying to compete with him or show him up. The wife fails because she has chosen an un-Biblical method of controlling her man, which men are not designed to easily acquiesce to. The Bible is full of wisdom,  and if it is applied the results and rewards are often above expectation. But if a wife tries to substitute this wisdom and follow a path that is easier or less difficult, such as an intercessor's remote prayers, pride, intimidation, belittling, disregard for his ideas, coercion or confrontation all her husband sees is her kicking a football around and it will simply become a game of competing wills. It is likely to lead to resistance and long term frustration with her husband. It makes more sense to apply what is in the Bible, easily get your way, remain blissfully happy in your marriage and stay his boss, even though he is the purported head of the household. The solution is counter-intuitive, which is why it is so difficult for the average person to understand and it is why submission is not just a thing, it is an art. But this is why it is scriptural, you need to believe; your faith and your commitment to Christ needs to be strong enough to grasp the solution and act on it. Whatever problems you are experiencing in your marriage as a wife, the Bible already gives you the answer to solve all your problems. Submit to your husband, in other words, take control of him and your marriage. You and your family will be happy again. Therefore, as a wife, the Bible teaches you that in your marriage you are never helpless.

Anybody who faces a sufficiently challenging crisis can develop deep levels of psychological insecurity. It can be about a job, relationship, the future, illness, marriage, an accident, unemployment, experiencing bad dreams night after night, and night terrors. Even in good times, fear of good times turning bad can perpetuate fear sapping the joy out of a person's life even in the midst of a family achieving great success. The gains and successes are not seen, instead the fear and insecurity prevails and there is no happiness in the family. The levels of psychological insecurity can vary over a person’s lifetime. Insecurity is a form of fear, and the problem with fear is that it can become perpetual, ever-present and lead to manipulation by those who profess to be able to make the problems causing anxiety to go away. The Bible however teaches that fear and insecurity is not the natural state of a Christian. When a person is learning how to swim, the first thing they are taught is how to float. Fear is sinking in water whereas the absence of fear is the ability to float on water. You cannot float on water unless you first learn how to surrender to it. Swimming coaches call this the star-fish position where you are on your back with your legs and hands extended and float above the water. Most Christians don't know how to make their faith float and then go on to be brave champions. They consequently remain insecure constantly in fear of drowning and this affects their lives. When you can't swim and are insecure in water you often need flotation devices to prevent you from drowning. Objects of faith such as rosaries, crosses, statues, rituals, human intercessors are helpful but the faithful need to ensure they do not become permanent flotation devices. People who have not as yet learned how to surrender completely to Christ live in perpetual fear the same way a person in a body of water who does not know how to swim lives in perpetual fear of sinking to the bottom and drowning. Their faith is not essentially self-driven from within and they need people, prayer warriors or objects of faith the same way a person who does not know how to swim needs inflated devices to float. The very first thing a Christian who cultivates his or her faith is expected to learn is how to make their faith float through complete surrender to Christ. To do this they need to rely on no human being or object to determine the strength of their faith. When you learn how to surrender completely to Christ, you float, you reach a place of elevation where fear cannot reach you. From this position a human being like a prayer warrior or objects of faith like rosaries, crosses, rituals and statues may help you in your spiritual growth, but they cannot exploit, misdirect, mislead or control you to the extent that you become completely helpless and engulfed in fear without them. As a Christian you need to know how to stamp out, rise above and beyond the reach of fear through complete surrender to Christ. The most effective way to do this from my personal experience is through meditation, even more so than prayer, for gaining this particular attribute. Therefore, its unusual that meditation is not central to worship in Christianity and most simply don't know how. I meditate for up to forty minutes or longer every single day. My meditation though short is exceptionally deep. Meditation is a passive form of worship whereas prayer is an active form of worship. Together they complete a Christian. Complete surrender to God is the ability to be in a constant state of inner peace, the ability to feel constantly secure and unperturbed by challenges becomes a hallmark of one’s faith. It also reduces dependency on intercessors and the vulnerabilities that ensue from this dependency allowing a better relationship with them to be created. My cousin once asked me why nothing, even very trying trying circumstances seem to phase me, I always appear calm, cool as a cucumber she said. My calmness is anchored in meditation. Through meditation you learn to completely surrender to Christ beyond any distraction, even fear. Here even panic attacks and insecurities of any kind are effectively broken. Personally, I hold the view that challenges are part of our natural lives and instead of trying to make them go away it is often better to pray for endurance and strength. This is the path the Apostles followed.

Families are the cornerstone of the Church. The Catholic Church in Zambia and Parish Priests in their various parishes around Zambia need to take a more proactive stance. They need to be aware of what is going on in the spiritual lives of their parishioners. If a prayer warrior or charismatic enters a home and family to provide it with guidance they should first register with the office of the family's parish stating their qualification for what they will do, the problems they intend to offer solutions to. Parishes can share and maintain a roster of prayer warriors and charismatics who are known and qualified, including the areas they may come to specialize in and their record of success with families. The parish will first check to see if they are qualified to provide the interventions the family needs then issue a desist or go ahead, and it should expect a report of the results of the intervention. If a priest is asked by a family or individual to perform mass at a parishioners house or elsewhere outside a church building, it may be prudent that they first inform the parish office where the parishioner congregates and receive an official ok to proceed. It should be considered illegal or unacceptable to bypass the parish and conduct such without having gained permission and disseminated information that is kept by the parish office. This allows the parish priest to know that a congregant worshiping at his parish is receiving mass or other spiritual observances from someone outside his parish. Since it is his duty to provide for his parishioners he will then be informed as to why there was a need to seek outside counsel as this should be justified.

In addition to this the Catholic Church needs to formalize the charismatic movement by providing specific types of training to the charismatic membership, such as marriage counselling, finance, investment, psychiatry and so on whereby certification is obtained by a charismatic for a specific area of counselling. The courses can possibly be designed and supervised by the Zambia Catholic University and distributed to parishes around Zambia. This counseling though based on professional material can also be Bible based. The more areas the prayer warrior and charismatic becomes educated, trained and certified in the broader advice they can dispense to a family or individual family member. A record should be kept of the results of their interventions. The Bible clearly states that the devil works through exploiting ignorance. Giving advice to families on matters a prayer warrior and charismatic is not qualified to provide counsel can lead to serious problems in a family and is tantamount to working in opposition to the Word of God. It should be a requirement charismatics who are welcomed into families and inevitably will offer such personal advice and counselling to a couple or spouse are actually trained to do so in the area they provide help. They must have qualifications and know what they are doing otherwise they can cause more unintended and untold damage to a marriage rather than help a family. If the Catholic Church and parishes do not take these issues seriously the Church will be undermined, the real and potential danger to families will critically damage the Catholic Church and faith in Zambia. This is a serious matter.

Church and and a family's faith is a rock upon which families grow, but if the Catholic Church does not address the potential harm being caused by laymen, individuals and rogue elements who physically enter the homes and lives of parishioners or call individual members of a family to isolated retreats where in dubious solitude they dole out their own special brand of religion, spirituality and personality to wives, husbands and children of parishioners the Catholic Church will find that it is allowing decent families in Zambia to be deeply harmed, broken apart and lead into misery. Self-styled prayer warriors, charismatics and spiritual persons conducting unconventional ceremonies and prayer interventions in questionable ways and at questionable venues who enter the homes of families who believe they are doing good, but because they are not qualified to advise or provide spiritual guidance to families are likely to find themselves being the cause of grief and break-up of homes instead of building and uplifting marriages in the Catholic Church and its numerous parishes.

Wednesday, 30 August 2017

The Search for Artificial Intelligence

Its interesting to read about the ongoing debate concerning artificial intelligence (AI) especially when there are strong views expressed by prominent people in the tech industry such as Mike Zuckerberg and Elon Musk. Musk went on to give warnings about the dangers of AI. Nevertheless, how far has humanity come in understanding what consciousness, self-awareness are and consequently what they would mean to artificial intelligence. A few days ago I pondered this question and came up with this analysis.  
Self-awareness is not a form of intelligence exclusive to human beings. Human beings are self-aware, but so too are a dog, a cat and cow. A creature does not have to have a highly evolved or developed brain to be self-aware. Self-awareness is a state of mind created by a method of internal processes. It should not be as difficult as it has been thus far for science to create artificial intelligence (AI) unless the fundamentals of how biological organisms process information has not been correctly interpreted.
If we imagine the primordial beginnings of biological intelligence as beginning with nothingness and that nothingness were a blank piece of paper then consciousness would only begin when a dot is drawn on a blank sheet. However, because the observer in sensory terms only knows nothingness the appearance of the dot will not be an appearance of a dot, but an alteration of the blank sheet of paper or nothingness. For instance, if the sun is nothingness (the beginning), since there is nothing by which to define the moon, then during an eclipse the sun will simply grow dimmer and dimmer of its own volition and this will be referred to as an eclipse of the sun by which the idea of a moon is assumed but never verified as there is no means in evolution at this early stage for knowing a moon exists absolutely. Only the sun exists, only the sun is absolute all else is relativistic to the sun therefore any new information is processed using variations in light alone. The observer is consequently not seeing that a dot has appeared on the paper, it does not know what a dot is. Rather it sees that the nothingness has become a little dimmer in a specific location. Technically there is no dot, only a specific change in the nothingness. In other words, the dot was not added to the paper, it did not appear; rather something was taken from the nothingness. 

Its important to understand this process in the evolution of intelligence in biology. It means the brain may not accumulate knowledge by addition, but by subtraction. It means the brain may not process information with 1s and 0s like a computer. It more likely processes information with 0s alone: a unitary system. This means every electrical shade of 0 is a very specific idea. Every variation of an idea (nuance) is stand alone. Each stand alone idea is mapped to a specific electrical frequency or charge. Every nuance in electrical charge broadcasting or moving between cells (transistors) represents a particle of thought. Since every tiny variation in frequency or charge represents an independent or very specific idea the closest analogy of the methodology and processing system would be to that of a musical symphony. Every change in charge or note struck conjures a very specific idea in the brain. Since every slight change in electrical charge represents a unique sound there is a very wide and complex variation in tones. If the specific charge and the idea it represents is mapped it is likely the brain could communicate directly and very precisely with the aid of a computer. Since we know that learning a language fluently requires a vocabulary of at least ten thousand words then scientists being able to map just ten thousand electrical charge nuances and the very specific ideas they represent would be able to communicate directly with the human brain. Ten thousand is a very small quantity of signals to map, which means communicating directly with the brain must be much easier than medical science may believe. Even a person in a coma with a functional brain would be able to communicate like a normal person furthermore it would be possible to contemplate the first telepathic forms of communication, that is, communication directly from one brain to another or from a brain to an electronic device. Electronically Assisted Telepathy (EAT) as a branch of human technology is probably not very far off. It would certainly be interesting to observe two or more people using their minds to communicate directly at the speed of thought.

Instead of a pattern of 0s and 1s to build a single idea as seen in a binary processing system, the brain uses ideas themselves in a unitary processing system. Intelligence is observed when ideas form patterns. A cross referencing process consisting of what each idea is not is used to turn these ideas or very finely tuned electrical charges that represent ideas into language. This process generates thought or consciousness and is what human beings inevitably call language. The cross-referencing process as a method for language in itself is likely to be fundamental to every brain and may eventually allow for the direct integration and communication of computers with biological brains using a universal platform. The problem that may arise is that each brain may have its own referencing system by which it assigns ideas to electrical charges. This charge can be isolated by using a specific idea as a stimulus for the brain then observing which charge, frequency or signal it uses for that specific idea. Once the signal is known triggering it must always yield the same idea or  result. A specific electrical charge in one brain that triggers the idea of a car may trigger a washing machine in another. Though cumbersome this may be a good thing as it means mass mind control through electronic means is a myth. Any message that is broadcast will trigger different cranial ideas in every individual. Each individual would have to submit their "mind map" before anyone can communicate with them; it is also likely these maps can be encrypted which entails that even if it is offered for electronically assisted communication by a user it can be designed to be only accessed with their permission. 

To create a universal platform computers would have to learn how to operate a unitary language (map what at least ten thousand ideas or electrical charge nuances in each individual brain means in order to learn its language and speak to the brain directly) as opposed to a binary language. This is very different from a binary system where at its baseline every object, idea or nuance is further represented by a pattern of 0s and 1s. At the baseline of a unitary system there is no such pattern, there is only the individual idea itself, but the ideas, represented by every nuance of 0, can be infinite in number. Many ideas group themselves to form patterns. The  generated patterns, when coherent, correspond with intelligence. This may mean that forming patterns using ideas is what we can call intelligence. It is synonymous with the patterns created by processing in computers, but it does not use the same baseline system. This difference may be crucial. It means that while computers exhaust huge amounts of processing power to generate patterns of 0s and 1s, just to construct an idea or object, the brain skips this process altogether and instead uses this processing power to generate intelligence or patterns of fully formed ideas. Cross referencing individual 0s leads to biological consciousness. When what objects and ideas "are not" is processed this effectively leads to self-awareness. Although the brain stores ideas the method by which it processes them is likely to be very unusual. It does not take stored ideas at face value the way a conventional computer processes data in its memory rather it cross references ideas, never directly using the idea it attempts to process to define itself. For instance when a cat is shown to a brain, the idea of a cat is stored in its memory, but this is not what will be triggered. The cross-reference system that creates self awareness will kick in. Everything other than the image of a cat is what is likely will instead be triggered and it might appear to researchers as though the brain is deliberately trying to resist being understood. The best method might be to look for the specific cell that does not respond or responds the least to the idea used as trigger. This may make it very complex or tricky to map a brain in order to facilitate direct communication with it and this may create challenges when it comes to mapping electrical charges in cells to determine which ideas they represent. However, it may lead to an entirely new field of medicine based on this method of communication.

A binary system of zero and one is unlikely to work in biology where one is “on” and zero is “off” because biology does not have an absolute off state, in that if 0 is living and 1 is dead, death is outside the sensory system of a biological entity and therefore not computable. This would advance the idea that instead of one and zero, on and off only changes in zero are used to process information. In terms of technology this would be like one transistor acting as the receiver being the first zero, while a second transistor acting as an amplifier is the second zero. Together they form a central processing unit (cpu). This cpu can do the work of thousands of cells and transistors. The change in transistor one (receiver) causes a change in transistor 2 (amplifier) and information is processed using this process. Although in this set up transistor one appears to behave like zero and transistor 2 like one, the major difference is that in the new system there is a huge elevation in nuance. In a processor a one can only be a one and zero a zero. In the new system there can be limitless variations of the intensity of charge between the receiver and the amplifier. In other words between 0 and 0 in this system the intensity can vary from 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04. The smaller the variations and faster the sensor can read them the bigger the processor and processing power of just one cell.
A computer or artificial processor that behaves like a human brain could be severely limited by using a processing system that consists of physical zeros and ones in a cpu. Conceptually, using the receiver and amplifier method for processing means the equivalent of just two transistors could have the processing power of all the millions of transistors crammed into a cpu. If there are only two cells in this “brain” and a movement of current from receiver to amplifier could act like a broadcast that any and all transistors could receive then cells could work together to manage information. Using this process every transistor would be involved in any and every action by a process of abstention and self-awareness would materialize.If, in a unitary cpu, just two cells or transistors can do the work of many using nuance and cells by communicating with one another can process information then it opens the way to understanding how insects and other tiny creatures can exhibit forms of intelligence. This may also explain how a child born with less than 2% of healthy brain tissue may still have the processing power to go on to live a relatively healthy life.
If there is only a zero and no one in how biological organisms process information, this unique quality may be key to what consciousness and self-awareness mean. The manner in which biological organisms process information is what creates intelligence and generates an ego or unique individual, as the complexity of the “brain” increases so too does the complexity of the person or animal. The method biological organisms generally use to create intelligence is like the process by which light works. White light contains all the colours of the spectrum. When it strikes an object the colour observed is the one reflected or scattered. In other words if all the other colours are absorbed and green is scattered then we observe an apple and say it is green. The process of intelligence required to analyse a green apple required all the colours of the spectrum to be absorbed to determine what it is; this becomes how all self-awareness is generated. The green apple is never actually identified absolutely, that is, there is no 1 in this processing method or system only a variations of 0. The algorithm for consciousness or self-awareness is therefore probably very simple in that it is a constant query that asks what any object or action is not i.e. the absence of 1 in the processing system; while that query goes on in a perpetual loop consciousness and self-awareness exists. In order to avoid error a brain never accepts anything as absolute: there is a zero but no one. Using this system the level of accuracy increases many times over. If there is a cup on your table it only remains a cup due to the fact that your brain is telling you it’s a cup a few thousand times a second. It can tell it’s a cup only by cross referencing what it isn’t a few thousand times per second. This ongoing loop and process generates consciousness and inevitably creates self-awareness when applied to how the brain relates to itself.
The approach in AI today is to predetermine the apple is green. The programmer pre-defines the colour and therefore cancels the thought process making it impossible to design an algorithm that is patently conscious and can become self-aware. To correct this problem what it is (green), has to be determined by what it is not (the remaining colours of the spectrum absorbed). If white light means every biological brain cell is the same then when a brain cell fires it is not identifying an object but a process. If a neuroscientist artificially stimulates a brain cell and it causes an arm to move then that cell does not know it’s an arm, but behaves like an arm cell. This cell moved the arm not because it knew to move the arm, but because by a process of elimination all the other cells in the brain excluded themselves from this reaction. It knew what to do by abstention, that is, by knowing what not to do. Similarly, every colour in the spectrum had to be excluded for the apple to be identified as green. If this is true, when a neuroscientist stimulates an area in the brain, it only responded firstly because the rest of the cells in the brain recognized their non-involvement in this action. What this would entail is that even if a machine shows neurons firing in one sector of the brain for this to be processed the rest of the brain had to take a position, therefore, despite there being billions of cells this method would suggest as far as they are concerned there is only one brain cell, i.e., a zero with no one. By using a system of receiver and amplifier brain cells or transistors would be able to network directly with one another using broadcasts to process information in groups or clusters. Consequently, this is not a binary system of processing information neither is it digital. It is more advanced than both these systems.
 In essence, where the apple is concerned, what is being observed is not necessarily green but the absence of every colour but green. Similarly, the brain begins to learn by knowing nothing in the beginning, then it starts to identify everything it encounters by a process of elimination what it’s not. As the brain grows it adds more and more cells to its network. These cells share the task of processing information. In order to identify an object the brain must constantly use nuance to differentiate what it observes from the full spectrum of white light, that is, everything it knows or all the other objects it has encountered.
When the brain sees an object, in order to identify it, like all the other colours absorbed except green, it must go through all its objects, vet them, and by a process of elimination identify what it observes. It can do this very quickly if cells work together to process information. To observe an object and make sense of it a biological brain is likely to have to constantly make thousands of calculations per second. This process is likely sped up by creating a natural algorithm or pattern of "what it’s not" that when in constant play establishes consciousness and self-awareness or "what it is" by default through a process of absolute subtraction. This process is what is referred to as consciousness. Using this method a single brain cell can multiply and like a baby can go from a brain with a blank slate at birth learn all the way to a PhD. When the brain applies this process of elimination to itself, it becomes self-aware. It becomes self-aware by constantly calculating what it is not. Through this process what it is, like the green apple, becomes reflected and self-awareness is realised. In other words a person only gains self-awareness by his or her consciousness knowing what it is not, as it can never be truly and objectively certain what it is. This approach of processing using variations of zero only would be like a knife that is persistently, constantly, tirelessly sharpening itself, which is a process when observed appears as intelligence.
This most likely explains why consciousness requires a significant amount of processing power and why brain cells can deliver it. To be able to consciously see or process 1 object would require thousands of references per second processing a catalogue of what it isn't that consequently generate what it is, a process that by default generates self-awareness and consciousness itself. Like Relativity Theory intelligence arises not out of objects observed in and of themselves but constant cross references seeking accuracy and therefore constantly poised for learning. Computers built on a binary system may have some advantages but the digital process of using 0s and 1s to process information is way too slow and far too primitive in comparison; they would have a very hard time keeping up with a extraordinarily fast"unitary" system where one cell or transistor can do the work of thousands composed only of a system using nuances of zero. It’s easy to store the idea of an apple on a computer and use very little memory and processing power in doing so. But for the human brain to know what an apple is, it does not have the luxury of directly inputting what it observes as it is. This is likely due to the fact that the object is never directly identified, except through a system of reference. This is in turn due to the fact that direct identification cannot take place without pre-existing knowledge. Biological organisms do not grow with the luxury of pre-existing knowledge and if an object is mistaken for another using this primitive process there may not exist a reliable method of correction. This flaw can lead to accidents and fatal errors for biological lifeforms. In other words the 0 and 1, or digital method of processing information may be highly accurate for saving, accessing and processing information but it is flawed in that it can easily yield false positives leading to dangerous mistakes based on improperly tested assumptions. It is easy to understand why nature would avoid using this as a learning system. Avoiding identifying anything encountered directly allows the brain to avoid catastrophic life threatening errors. Using and understanding this process means any logic based system, even a computer, can become self-aware by design rather than by processing power. By being able to constantly process what it is not, with a minimum degree of complexity, it will develop consciousness. This, by default, becomes a reference or means by which to define what it is consequently allowing what is essentially a computer or machine to become self aware. This procedure also allows creatures with much less brain power than human beings to be self-aware. A brain only knows what something is, by knowing what it isn't. The more ways it can cross reference and differentiate ideas or objects in this way, the more intelligent it becomes. This is why a more robust brain makes human beings more intelligent, but self awareness itself being based on a simple processing system with no absolutes (no ones) does not need a large brain mass. Since every brain observes objects from its own vantage point, and encounters experiences in situations unique to itself, this process of elimination through cross referencing that generates self-awareness is unique to the observer and this becomes what is observed as a personality. No two personalities can be exactly the same because no two people go through exactly the same experiences at the same time, consequently no two people have the same references to identify either themselves (self-awareness) or the brain processing the world they observe (consciousness). 
This explains why the brain is exceptionally effective but it also explains why it is so easy for the brain to become confused. Since it takes a constant stream of subconscious analysis for the brain to function precisely, anything that interrupts this process of elimination can make it difficult to stream all the cross references that allow the brain to identify definitively what it observes. Anything that interrupts this process, like a concussion, alcohol, drugs or disease can delay cognition by making it take longer to sift through every aspect of what is being observed to be sure what it isn't in order to identify what it is. This may be why sometimes, even if an object is known but the reference system or process of elimination fails a person can fail to identify it. A person with Alzheimer for instance may have every person they know, everything they have seen or experienced stored in the brain. They may fail to remember not because they don’t have the information in their brain, but due to the fact that the brain treats objects stored in memory with the same suspicion it treats physical objects. This may demonstrate that the confusion observed in boxers after a heavy punch creates a concussion that interrupts processing. Memory is not affected in the concussed boxer has not forgotten where he is who he is fighting and why he is in the ring, however, the processing method has been interrupted creating what might appear to be an inability to remember, count, recognize the referee and control motor functions. The failure to identify something may not have been caused by failing to remember it, but by the brain being suspicious of memory itself and failing to cross reference what it isn't since objects in memory itself will be over-ridden by the cross reference process as not being seen trustworthy. Memory does not help this process since, as a life preserving fail-safe,  the brain will treat objects saved mentally with the same disdain it does objects in the real world. It will likely have to cross reference anything stored as memory it needs to recall to understand what it retrieves from its own memory. This applies to anything the brain processes, be it moving objects, personality, motion, motor functions, emotions, anger, love, hate, affection and so on. In essence, in order to be self-aware the brain must study other people, nuance and personalities as it grows, cross reference them and through a process of elimination generate a state of what they are not (the ability to distinguish itself from other people) consequently by default identifying itself and this becomes part of its self-awareness observed as a personality. This makes consciousness a complex process built on a very simple system. It explains why mental illnesses such as dementia, multiple personality disorder, identity problems and so on can affect people relatively easily. If a person’s own unique personality and self-awareness is built on every personality the brain says they are not then any interruption of this accuracy enhancing and verification process can lead to varying degrees of identity and multiple personality disorders. Even amongst people considered relatively sane and well balanced, that balance is maintained by thousands of behaviours, personalities and nuances the brain is cross referencing by subtraction to recognize itself and become a self styled "self-consciousness" or personality. It may also point to a strong link between self-awareness and behaviour. An interruption to the referencing process by which a person becomes self aware can consequently lead to a noticeable change in behaviour. Consciousness takes the long way around to develop intelligence but it may explain why the brain is so robust and can sometimes unexpectedly recover from injury. It may also explain how few gifted  people can develop photographic memories or the strange ability to recall an entire book perfectly. This may simply be a quirk in how their brain functions in that it finds a way of eluding the standard cross-referencing process to accesses memory directly; the more primitive way a computer retrieves stored data. However, in so doing they are likely using a method the brain does not approve of.
If this holds true, the brain is a very, very busy place. Even when a person is alone sitting in a room relaxing, closes their eyes or falls asleep the brain will be generating thousands of queries per second scanning every object in the room and mind against itself to sustain the consciousness of a person and by using a process of elimination identify everything there inadvertently generating and managing its own self-awareness.

This is likely why the human mind finds it difficult to answer the existential question: what am I? It encounters difficulty answering this question because its conscious existence and self-awareness is generated by subtraction not direct cognition. In essence it does not know what it is, definitively because it basically only knows definitively what it is not. Consequently, it’s easy to give computers hard drives and sensors and programme them to identify what objects are: this is basic cognition: on/off, yes/no, 0 and 1 etc. If a computer with facial recognition identifies people as they enter the room it will quickly map characteristics with those stored on its hard drive, find the closest matches and use this procedure to identify the person. Similarly a robot moving through a room or self driving car navigating through streets will analyse its surroundings and objects using direct cognition to find their way around. However, the brain may not allow itself the luxury of assumption, i.e. that the faces in memory or the objects it observes are accurate. Even if a person stored in memory enters the room it will identify the person by going through all the faces the person couldn’t be and by process of elimination identify a face. A cell is likely born having no spatial information. It must find itself and move by cross referencing its environment. Therefore, biological brains or minds may process space differently from computers in that they avoid an absolute origin or starting point and instead use objects and the environment to cross-reference where they are, are supposed to be or might be. When applied to motor functions this allows biological organisms to have very highly refined and accurate movement. Computers and robots on the other hand have the luxury of pre-cognition which allows users to initially program them to predetermine where they are and use sensors which constantly self reference using a predetermined origin that is applied when calculating where they are in relation to other objects. This may have some advantages, but it is likely, in many ways, to be inferior to the method observed in nature. In other words in facial recognition it may use consciousness to identify the person not pre-recognition, it does not rely on memory alone, but relies on cross references to recognize a person. The user or progammer (zero) provides the basic information (one) the computer uses from its memory to define objects. This is straight forward. However, the brain does not always have the luxury of a memory (one) . It must initially programme itself (0); this ability to learn is referred to as intelligence and consists of variations of zero (the programmer) with no one (no pre-existing information). With very complex programming and hardware a computer can be made to acquire a certain degree of intelligence dependent on a combination of memory and algorithms. However, nature abandoned this method because it can prove unreliable and lead to fatal errors in judgement in biological entities if an object, memory or action is misidentified, incorrectly processed or misinterpreted. Its solution may therefore be to avoid identify anything through cognitive approaches or digitization, that is, through an object or action in and of itself, but by a unitary system using references to what it is not, should not do or be. It does this spatially and even in regards to itself, and by subtraction inadvertently becomes self-aware. If this is true it would explain why the brain seems to be constantly in conversation with itself. When computer programmers understand this process they will see that building even simple computers that are self-aware, can learn and are artificially intelligent is actually not that difficult.

Insights into the language used by the brain...

For years scientists have been trying to unlock the mysteries of the brain. A very significant key to the puzzle that unlocks this mystery is the language the brain uses to speak to itself. Earlier I noted that this language must be musical in nature and alluded to a symphony of some sort. However, it may not be the kind of symphony played by a philharmonic orchestra. In this regard I would direct researchers in this area to snoring. Study the frequencies, vibrations and every aspect of snoring and how brain waves respond to these. When we are awake snoring is the most annoying and irritating sound to hear. On a good day I can belt out a few notes myself. Nevertheless, I have been able to personally witness something altogether astonishing about the impact of the noises produced by snoring on the brain. How? By being able to remain fully conscious, self aware and thirdly in an elevated state of consciousness common in meditation but that has occurred whilst in a state of deep sleep. This is something most people will never experience.

In this lucid state you can actually observe an incredibly deep communication between snoring sounds and the brain. What the vibrations from snoring are doing is enabling the brain to enter and hold a specific elevated state of consciousness. It is like an aid or assist induced in the physical body and being manipulated by the brain. The key to the language and how the brain communicates with itself may be in an over looked activity, namely snoring. It means absolutely nothing when you are awake, but it is the language of the angels to the brain when you are no longer conscious. This may sound unusual, nevertheless it is worth noting that snoring is caused by air moving soft tissue in the palate during obstructed breathing. This soft tissue appears to be situated directly beside or very close to the reticular activating system that controls rem sleep whose circuits run from the brain stem through the thalamus to the cortex. In fact physiologically, the reticular activating system can be described as appearing to descend from out of the brain to reach toward the soft tissue of the palate. Medical science once viewed tonsils a vestigial organ. Tonsils increase the amount of soft fleshy tissue in the area close to the recitular activating system. In fact tonsils seem perfectly designed to amplify the noise and vibration of snoring as well as to provide a means of obstructing beathing to enhance sleep apnea.  It is not just the sound of snoring itself, but the deep vibrations emerging from the soft tissue that affects this area of the brain. Call it what you may, but it is an intriguing confluence of two biological organs. Snoring therefore, as unusual as it may at first seem, may represent the identification of a highly evolved organ or instrument used by the brain as an auditory or vibrational means with which to communicate with itself and control states of consciousness during sleep. It is also possible that everyone snores inaudibly during some point in their sleep, but sufficiently loud enough for the brain to use these sounds. If this observation is true it may provide keys for creating the first formal auditory system and mechanism for facilitating direct communication with the brain. This is an area for medical science to explore.

It is also interesting to note some similarities between the stochastic vibrating sound in snoring and the purring sound made by cats. Think of those noisy old modems communicating in machine code, snoring sounds seem to have a similar relationship with the brain. Should specific snoring sounds and vibrations repeatedly induce specific thought responses from the brain then mapping these may provide the first auditory road map to direct communication with the brain.There may be more to all this, but snoring to people awake is just an irritating noise; its true value may not be accessible in the normal conscious state where it means absolutely nothing.

The unusually close proximity of the Soft Palate and the Reticular Activating
System of the brain may not be a coincidence. The sounds and vibrations produced
by the soft tissue appear to be made use of by the brain as a means of communication.

The second interesting physical phenomenon that has a significant impact on the brain is sleep apnea.  This is where the body while asleep enters a state where it stops breathing cutting off oxygen to the brain. Again this seems like a very irritating and life threatening problem some people go through. However, sleep apnea, like snoring may not be fully understood. While snoring allows the brain to enter and hold a new state of consciousness what I have observed is that sleep apnea pushes the brain into a disembodied state of consciousness where it appears to completely separate itself from the physical body. It also may not be a coincidence that tonsils play a part in both snoring and airway restriction that causes or induces sleep apnea and working with the reticular activating system may form a complex mechanism the brain (the domain) can use for communication and regulating states of consciousness while a host (tether) is in deep sleep. Sleep apnea may only last several seconds when it is recorded in a lab at a sleep clinic but the seconds can translate into hours when the brain elevates itself into a higher state of consciousness. Not only this, sleep apnea can occur in cycles where it is repeated over and over again through the night. The deprivation of oxygen caused by sleep apnea is not a random occurrence. It is a deliberate physiological condition induced by the brain in the physical body for the brain to have what can only be described as an altered consciousness and undisturbed out of body experience. Believe it or not controlled breathing as a means of affecting states of consciousness or awareness is not new. In yoga this ancient practice is a science called Pranayama, you can look it up. The question remains why would the brain begin to apply these breathing techniques during sleep? These workings of the human body are currently unknown to modern medical science and require further inquiry.

It sounds like nothing more than mundane snoring, but these vibrations
are having a profound affect on the brain during sleep. What exactly is the brain 
communicating in these sounds. The amount of information being processed
and states of consciousness being lucidly and intelligently manipulated by the active brain using
these sounds may one day astound scientists and they may hold the key to unlocking 
direct communication with the brain. [Playing back identical recordings like this to 
groups in deep sleep, asking them to recall their dreams and comparing these against 
the waveform could provide some interesting insights that may help in the decoding process.]

Any sleep scientist who witnesses rapid eye movement during rem sleep when a person is not truly self aware cannot help but be alarmed by the intensity of this activity and contemplate the potential existence of a duality in human consciousness which may correspond with the existence of two essentially separate entities existing in one physiology co-existing through a previously unexplored symbiosis where one, though hidden, is dominant over the other; a domain and a tether. The tether from birth develops a personality that learns to function within the norms created by society. Its behaviour and sense of morality is rationalized within these traditions and restrictions. The domain on the other hand is more or less unfettered and develops its own sense of morality. It emerges within its own consciousness and encompasses the subconscious deeply into regions the tether has no access. The domain is able to live out its life in a god-like mental space with few restrictions. The personality it inevitably forms is therefore unpredictable. Though the tether has no knowledge of the existence of the domain, it is likely the domain observes, hears,experiences and reviews everything the tether goes through in so doing organizes these memories appropriately in the brain. It sees thought, motive and action; truth and lies, honesty and deceit, good and evil: there is nothing the tether is likely to be able to conceal from the domain it inhabits. Though the domain, at present may exist unseen outside the knowledge of the tether, it has unfettered access and being privy to everything the tether thinks and does is likely to form and gain some kind of moral judgement over it.

As human beings we tend to assume that the brain comes into existence when we are born and that it is ours from then onwards until we die. However, we forget that the brain existed before us, and that it is thousands and thousands of years old. In fact we do not precisely know its origins, if it evolved or was created. This is a fundamental difference between AI and human beings. Human beings create AI in all its complexity within the limits of our technology but we do not precisely know the roots of our own creation or the limits therein. The brain enjoys two scientifically verifiable conditions. It enjoys activity whilst awake and from what we can garner from rem activity it is even more active when we are asleep. Logically, if we break down the two conditions to determine a precise preference, we have to ask the difficult question: where is the brains true reality? It does not matter if one life occurs purely within the mind since the brain would control reality itself. Would the brain in the first instance prefer to exist in a world where it is significantly limited, where it can be injured and physically harmed, where it is subject to physical laws such as ageing, gravity, time, space, place, sickness and so on? Or would it prefer to live in a world were it is free, has no limitations to what it can do or where it can go, cannot be injured, does not grow weary, is eternally youthful and not subject to time and space? Using reason which of these two worlds would it prefer to base its universal reality? Logic indicates its universal reality would likely be based in the more desirable second instance of rem activity. But if this were true then a paradigm shift occurs in our understanding of human anthropology. It entails that the entire horizon of human existence and civilization, what human beings wake up to do every day is fundamentally to nourish the physical brain, keep it safe, feed it, temporarily take care of its physical needs so that it can enter its true, wider and more unfettered existence when the physical body rests and enters sleep. It would entail that when a human being wakes up he or she is essentially in nothing more than a "foraging state" or a deliberately limited state of consciousness restricted, tasked with and tailored to foraging (1%), where it is spared the full knowledge, life, society and experience of the whole brain (the remaining 99%) in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the tiresome and tedious foraging process. By allowing the tether to believe it forages exclusively for itself, whilst it in fact does this for the domain, the brain indefinitely avoids a conflict arising between the two realities or states of consciousness and is able to dwell unhindered in the one it prefers. This reality may re-define the purpose of human existence.

The real possibility of an anthropological event horizon...

It is also possible to infer that the personality that wakes up every morning from sleep (the tether) may be completely different from the personality that is the brain itself ( the domain). Their life experiences and the very mechanism that operates their reality are quite different. The tether is oriented to simply fend for the brain and all its attributes may be accommodated to this end. If this analysis holds any truth then what is the relationship between the brain and the tether? Does it view the tether and itself as the same person, as equals at least or does it see the tether as being beneath it? Does this relationship between the domain and tether vary from person to person? It should also not be assumed that the attitude of the brain to the tether is a benevolent one as the relationship between the domain and the tether could be similar to that of master and a pet, or a pilot and a drone. It is also possible that the domain may refuse to recognize that the tether is its equal or that it is an extension of itself and in the worst case scenario may merely see the tether as a lesser being, something beneath it that it will not bow down to. Worst of all it may see it as a slave of sorts that tends to its needs during the cycle when the individual (tether) is awake. What will happen if and when modern medicine is able to lift the veil that separates the domain from the tether and human beings almost immediately gain the full scope of their memories. This will include those of the domain and consequently, a person's understanding of his or her full nature by gaining an entire life, history, and existence they did not know they had. This would be nothing less than an anthropological event horizon for human beings. The fact that the tether goes about its business daily thinking it acts in its own interest whilst in fact this behaviour is merely a tool or a function of the domain by which its biological health is catered to may encourage the domain to view the tether as a lesser being.Though scientists may argue that the brain spends more time awake than it does asleep the nature of time in these two states may differ, for example, if an hour of sleep is equivalent to twelve hours of being awake then this difference alters the balance of value between the two physiological states.

Nevertheless, it may be that if humanity were to discover that the physical world is not its true reality it may either lose its sense of a purpose for living or do everything in its power to enter the 2nd instance where it is truly alive. However, it cannot do this without risking abolishing the very existence of the 2nd instance since its purpose, which is to sustain and nourish the physical brain in the first instance might be jeopardized. This would explain why the brain prevents absolutely any substantive knowledge of the brain's true activity during sleep. If this is true then human reality is nothing compared to what it is in its entirety or its true form. It would mean that human beings on waking to a mundane existence in the wakeful state of the physical world remain in a un-resurrected condition in which they know probably less than 1% of their scientifically true identity, that is, their identity in its entirety. Furthermore, what is different about all this is that medical science may be able to find sufficient evidence to comprehensively prove this and actually achieve it.

We assume that during sleep the physical brain is trapped in its own thoughts and incapable of communication outside itself. However, sleep apnea seems to indicate an attempt by the brain to induce and perpetuate what in medical circles is commonly referred to as a "near death experience" or NDE, a state known to be and described by people who wake from it as an out of body afterlife experience, state or condition. In medical science NDEs are usually a one off experience. They can occur on the operating table in a theater where the patient is pronounced dead but doctors manage to somehow resuscitate or resurrect them. Some patients return with descriptions of what they experienced when they were dead; which is predominantly an out of body experience and afterlife. An NDE is usually an unintentional one off of experience, where even though death is pronounced by doctors some brain function may persist allowing the brain to enter a state of consciousness it would otherwise be unable to enter. Sleep apnea appears to be an attempt to regulate oxygen flow to the brain such that persistent controlled oxygen restriction triggers a carefully controlled NDE, something unthinkable. If this is indeed done so that the brain can safely cross from life to afterlife conditions during sleep it raises many new questions.

What is odd about snoring and sleep apnea is that they are not being induced lucidly by the individual, this is clear in that snoring to people awake is nothing but an irritating noise, while observing the repeated stoppage of breathing induced during sleep apnea that seems to be an attempt to push the body to the brink of death is nothing less than frightening. Both seem undesirable because science has no clue that the brain, as a living and sentient organ, may be deliberately inducing these physiological conditions in the physical body to manipulate its own consciousness. Why and how is it deliberately doing this? Where does it want to go by inducing altered states? If the person woke up with little or no recollection of what occurred during this period when the brain biologically induced afterlife conditions does it mean nothing happened, or does it mean a person is simply unable to recall or recover the memory of what happened? This needs further research by sleep clinics and neuroscience that thus far assume snoring and sleep apnea are merely a type of infirmity for which a cure needs to be found.

When a person has fallen asleep the brain seems able to engage a kind of "launch protocol" and is able to manipulate not only the physical body but the brain itself by depriving it of oxygen in order to deliberately move the mind to an alternate state of awareness. This is truly fascinating. For the most part the person going through these physiological changes while asleep will wake up with absolutely no recollection of what their own mind did to their body, where it went or what it did during this physiologically self induced elevation of consciousness where it was self aware. Scientists need to study these physical phenomena more closely as at present they may be the only tangible evidence of a physical means for finding a method for a sentient direct communication with the brain.

Paradigm Shift: As human beings what we think we are (1% of consciousness) Vs 
what we really are and look like riding in the cranium (the remaining 99% of consciousness). 

If the entire paradigm of our existence, the modern world and human civilization is built from basically foraging for the brain it may inspire deeper reflection. We tend to think of ourselves as the center of our being and the brain as merely an extension of ourselves. But what if the opposite is true and the biological brain is the center of existence and we are merely a useful appendage on its periphery? There may be a whole lot more to the human psyche than that which is observed when human beings are awake. When they are awake it seems the brain is "forced" to operate within the lucid state operating on possibly as little 1% of the host's (the brain's) full array of consciousness. Why? Because human beings don't require more than 1% of the brains array of intelligence to forage, that is, implement activities that will keep the brain safe and fed. It sounds uncomfortable, but it may become necessary to begin to see the brain itself, as it resides all wrinkly and cocooned in the cranium or "cockpit", as the "pilot"or  whole person while the person that emerges from sleep every morning to go to work or tidy the house is merely nothing more than an insignificant tentacle of that whole person deliberately confined by the brain to a limited world and reality so it can effectively do its job. Human awareness when awake may be designed to believe it has independence. We go about our day to day activity autonomously and take pride in freedom of choice. But what if this freedom exists simply because it is expedient to the brain and a hassle free method of gathering resources and nutrients for the brain, aka the pilot, deploying autopilot? If there were any truth to this at all it could lead to a Galileo-like event where human life and social existence is in fact not the center but the less important periphery of a much wider and far greater existence.It is likely the truth can only be inevitably determined through direct communication with the brain and how it will chose to respond to discovery. It may be naive for what is nothing more than a nutrient gatherer and curator for the brain to assume while awake it is the whole person, when it is nothing more than a hand, a thumb or a complex limb that is semi-autonomous, rather "shallow" and "stupid". It is maintained in a confined reality by the brain and allowed to believe its own delusions to serve the brains purpose. Lets refer to this being as the ego. [O.k I admit I'm chuckling right now at how amusing this all sounds].

The reality is human beings spend 1/3 of their lives asleep often with brain activity equal to or greater than when awake while science remains baffled about the true nature of sleep itself. The same way that while we are awake snoring is nothing but annoying and irritating it seems humanity knows very little about its own mind. What will be the outcome when science finally discovers and fully understands sleep and the greater reality that is the brain and is able to merge the two. None the less, my assumption is that the brain is already designed to encounter this eventuality, event horizon,  "awakening" or Resurrection, call it what you will. It will not allow two separate personalities to inhabit the same mind and the human life being so insignificant and yet overwhelmed by its own ego or self importance would not accept this paradigm shift to the periphery, therefore it will be flooded with memories formerly concealed of who its fuller personality is. The ego is likely to be rapidly absorbed completely into the whole mind and be made to assume it becomes the host or "pilot" and will be made to believe they have always been one and the same thereby nullifying any conflict between the two states of existence allowing them to merge into a new singular  consciousness: the anthropological event horizon.

The need for the advancement of medical science in this area...

Should some of the observations made here be true, their scope for application in medical science are quite significant. To begin with if its true that the brain has a launch protocol that induces physiological changes in the body which in turn allow the mind to separate from the body it can have many practical applications. This launch protocol leads to the controlled deprivation of oxygen to the brain. As is observed in sleep apnea this deprivation is carefully controlled during sleep such that it occurs in cycles of controlled breathing where the brain is deprived of oxygen for a period of time until a critical threshold is reach then rapidly re-oxygenated.  When this critical threshold is reached the brain, sensing imminent death or the potential for it triggers a separation of the mind from the body. When this happens the patient or individual emerges fully self aware in a new state of consciousness where they appear to regain complete control of their motor functions. What is intriguing is that these exact conditions can be replicated with relative ease using a specially designed breathing mask or in hyperbaric chambers where heart rate and brainwave function can be monitored. If it is perfected as a science, for example, to the extent that doctors specialize in anesthesiology, it would be possible to have specialists in this area as well. It would be key in the therapeutic treatment of and recovery of patients in a coma who show brain function but are in a condition such that they are trapped in an immobile physical body. By allowing them to sleep and then putting them through the launch protocol in a specially designed oxygen mask or hyperbaric chamber, when separation occurs, they would appear to regain full motor function in a state of mind in which they are fully self aware and lucid. Research in this area would allow neuroscientists to identify more precisely the neural mechanism that engages and disengages physical motor function, for instance during rem sleep as well as how states of consciousness interact. Once this mechanism is fully understood by neuroscience as a result of this research it would be possible to design devices that trigger and control it at will using an electronic device rather than oxygen dependent devices.

This kind of treatment would prove immensely therapeutic to people who, for example, are quadriplegic as a result of accidents or who suffer from diseases that impair motor function. A successfully induced launch protocol in an oxygen regulating mask or  hyperbaric chamber would allow these patients to appear to regain full motor function; a freedom the infirmity in the physical body has deprived them of. This therapy may even lead to neuroscientists discovering ways of reviving motor functions in patients with this kind of infirmity. Patients can sometimes be fully lucid and have little or no mental impairment while they are confined as a result of a body that has lost or is beginning to lose motor function: a notable person is the physicist Stephen Hawking. This is an area of medical science that would prove to be of immense theraputic benefit to people for whom this kind of treatment has not been sufficiently researched.

The potential for two separate worlds and existences that are co-dependent to live within one biological mind is intriguing: a lucid physical mind when a person is awake and a fully self-aware, lucid mind complete with movement and motor function when unconscious or asleep. The brain, caught in the act of using the body as an aid, the reticular activating system manipulating human physiology through vibrations induced in the soft tissue of the palate the way you would use your laptop by pounding at the keys, so to speak, sounds very much like science fiction. The fact that this manipulation of human biology may be taking place while a person is unconscious due to sleep is quite odd and needs further study. I see a breakthrough in a new area of science and a PhD in there somewhere for researchers curious enough to study this more closely.

Will artificial intelligence be good or bad for mankind....

As for whether artificial intelligence will be good or bad for humanity will depend almost entirely on how its is managed. In a nut shell if AI arises purely out of processing power which is the current trend it may lead to highly intelligent binary computers capable of mimicking self awareness. However, Elon Musk may be right in being wary of these types of AI as they will be highly intelligent and yet have a shaky sanity threshold. They would most likely be inherently eccentric in that they would be able to blend in with human beings using intelligence but a form of reasoning that may be prone to incorrect analysis, faulty conclusions. They could easily malfunction as a result of using an inappropriate processing system. As the world now begins the transition from gas driven automobiles to electric cars binary forms of AI though limited will still play a very important role in the advancement of technology.  If AI arises out of a more advanced unitary processing system built on a cross-referencing process then Mark Zuckerburg is right. These computers will have a much higher sanity threshold. They will be very reliable, can be applied to any industry and be extremely useful to humanity. Their behaviour will be almost indistinguishable from a human being, dog, cat or any natural creature depending on their purpose and the level of intelligence allocated to them to serve that purpose. In some cases their stability and sanity may even be so reliable that it can be used to help human beings with psychological and other problems. They would be self-aware, learn and understand their use to society depending on what they are, for example, an elevator, car, mobile phone or android. They would be able to self diagnose not just their physical state, but also their mental state and submit themselves for repair should they sense they are functioning outside certain parameters. In this sense their levels of sentience or potential for sanity would be greater and more reliable than that of a human being making them beneficial to human society and culture. It would also probably be easier to test and correct them randomly for malfunctions. It is unlikely they would be a threat, quite the opposite, they would be a useful companion to humanity and would be adopted into human society, industry and the economy quite seamlessly with their main utility value being to improve quality of life for human beings. I would be inclined to believe that if human civilizations continued to improve and refine robots and artificial intelligence indefinitely  so as to arrive at the most appropriate social AI they would find themselves engineering biological tissue and find themselves back where they began in that what they would inevitably recreate is type of human being.

The economy and AI

One of the biggest concerns is that AIs will take over human jobs, create unemployment and thereby increase income inequality. This is an area of economics I have studied extensively. The negative problems associated with AI will only occur if economics itself does not evolve. Since business and economics are my area of specialization and professional expertise its easy to see that everything is already in place with which to wipe out poverty and the under performance of economies. The idea that in future there will be poor nations and rich nations, or immigrants rushing to live in richer countries we see at present is a serious error. It is more likely that governments trying to enhance population size will beg reluctant people to migrate. They will not want to migrate because they already enjoy a very high standard of living where they are. So if governments want to grow their populations through migration in order to enhance their economies, now is the time to accept as many migrants and refugees as is possible, because in future they will be an asset governments cannot get their hands on even through incentives and relaxed immigration laws.

In future business will be more likely to succeed than fail. They will grow from strength to strength especially if they understand what the market wants. There will only be variations of extremely wealthy nations with presently unheard of per capita incomes. I have absolutely no worries about poverty. It will end. Governments today can wipe out unemployment even in the poorest nations. I have already developed and tested an economic model, process and financial system by which to do this so its more than possible. The process for eliminating poverty is complex only due to many fundamental misconceptions about how economies work. Most of the mundane problems humanity faces as a result of scarcity will not last. When these misconceptions are corrected the procedure itself is quite simple. Consequently, in my personal view poverty and underdevelopment are not a huge concern. The solutions already exist. Nevertheless everything has its appointed time and its just a matter of when the appropriate time for these problems to be eliminated arrives.

What I have found is that the most advanced economic system applied by governments the world over today is quite primitive. In future there will be better more effective economic models.  Believe it or not there is an even more aggressive economic model than capitalism. In the book the Greater Poverty and Wealth of Nations I refer to this model as a Superconsumption model. In the most advanced stage of this economic model the only real "work" human beings do is to consume goods and services; consumption becomes a chore, a job just like accountancy, engineering, teaching and so on. As consumers work, that is,  pick goods and services they desire most off the shelf they are paid something equivalent to the value of what they consume, i.e., their choice becomes essentially more powerful than money since it determines how wealth for industrialisation is allocated. Businesses then depend on how consumers choose goods and services for their survival as affordability is no longer a barrier for the majority of purchases.

At a stage when AI can handle any job human beings can do, any form of employment human beings don't want to do will be taken over by AI, but because human beings no longer need conventional jobs to live happily and comfortably (they can get paid simply by consuming) the AIs taking over work have little negative impact on human socio-economic life. Human beings will most likely become more heavily involved in religion, education, research and development, entertainment, the creative arts which are all considered a part of creative expression which become the highest form of human endeavor in any field. In the past before you could acquire goods and services you needed to generate money through labour. In a Superconsumption model money is no longer a major barrier to consumption.

Piracy will be an important indicator of the need to advance Economic Models

As technology evolves production of goods and services, even those considered custom or exclusive, will become common place leading to patent, copyright and trademark problems. This can be observed in the music, movie and software industry where ease of reproduction facilitates piracy. This is due to the fact that the economic model is failing to keep pace with advances in industry. This ofcourse does not in the present day apply to all goods and services, but specific goods and services that have become prone to easy replication. Music, movies, software and other easily replicated products should ideally be paid globally, purely by choice alone and should by now have already evolved from a Capitalist model to a Supersonsumption model to the benefit of the global market as well as the businesses and individuals in these industries. Consequently governments need to begin to advance the model by which they are sold.

It is absolutely just a matter of time before even complex goods such as a Tesla Model X, Mercedes Benz Maybach or even those considered customized or exclusive and only for those extremely wealthy such as a Bugatti Chiron, Ferrari,  Koenigseg CCR, Rolls Roys Wraith, Hennessy Venom GT are being 3D printed in a day in people's back yards and of a production quality so high it is equal if not better than the rightful manufacturer. If you thought something like an engine couldn't be printed due the metallurgy required, in the news its been recently revealed that HRL Laboratories has made a breakthrough in metallurgy with the announcement that researchers at the famous facility have developed a technique for successfully 3D printing high-strength aluminum alloys. So think again. Think further and wider. Its just a matter of time before 3D printers able to replicate meals (from the firstto the last molecule) found at popular franchises or restaurant chains will start to appear on household kitchen counter tops,  a matter of time before instead of buying perfume or clothing from Dolce and Gabana, Ralph Lauren, Chanel, Burberry, Prada and so on, people may simply begin to 3D print them molecule by molecule with quality equal or better than the original. With the molecular structure of a single bottle of Goût de Diamants, Taste of Diamonds, mapped a 3D printer will with utmost ease go on to print millions of exact copies per month of the beverage to the point of perfection with tweaks that improve aftertaste. At this point a middle income family may be enjoying beverages and foods hardly anyone can afford today.

Call the method what you like, but technically scientists are already 3D printing beef and calling it "cultured meat". Only a few decades ago had you predicted the possibility of people eating a hamburger with a patty made from meat grown in a lab we would have labelled such thoughts mentally ill bordering on insane. And yet what may have been considered impossible is today called "cultured meat" which can be considered nothing less than a form of 3D printed meat. On August 3rd 2013 the worlds first lab grown burger was was cooked and eaten at a news conference in London by scientists from Maastricht University led by a professor named Mark Post. There are now rumours of a US$300m deal for China to buy lab grown meat from Israel, and that iconic entrepreneurs who have made their huge fortunes form thinking ahead of the curve like Richard Branson and Bill Gates are investing in it. At this stage, considering all the facets of meat consumption: from whether it is moral to grow and kill animals for human consumption, the impact on the environment and the sheer complexity of inputs required in rearing animals; humanity has no choice but to entertain the idea that in future all forms of meat will be lab grown and conventional animal farming that has been a facet of human society since time immemorial at some time in the the future will essentially come to end. The power of 3D printing as an industry and industrial method in and of itself cannot be underestimated. It would be both incompetent and insane for any economic planner not to widely assess the potential impact this revolutionary technology may have on employment, industry, finance and economics in general.

From a 3D printed tomato to 3D printed biological limbs for amputees or replacement organs for patients, interestingly it now seems to underestimate what this industry can eventually do is the more likely indication of a lack of foresight. Whats to stop this industry from eventually printing caviar. Eventually, even the most expensive foods money can buy will be in every household that wants them. What will become the new frontier is the design by which old and new foods are brought to life through various types and methods of 3D printing. Inevitably expensive 3D printers will be printing 3D printers giving birth to cheaper and cheaper yet more advanced replications of themselves until, like mobile phones everyone has a small one in the house and large one in the garage. At this point physical goods are ultimately prone to the very same problems observed in music, movies and software. Money loses its capacity to reasonably ration goods and services that have a technological process advanced beyond the capacity of businesses and governments to manage using money. Goods such as these, that have lost price sensitivity due to the ease of replication of which piracy is merely an early symptom, are advancing towards a more superior Superconsumption model and governments have to re-strategise how they are sold or risk killing off creativity and industry. Pricing is no longer an effective tool for businesses and sellers at this stage since the public can gain them practically for free or way below the production cost of the owner of the patent or copyright.

The solution then becomes to make these goods and services downloadable and accessible globally to the public at what would seem "for free"when in fact what consumers are exchanging for the product is choice. This strategy allows governments, business and sellers to retain the fair value of these goods and services in that the consumer who receives the product is paid or earns it by merely choosing it, while the manufacturer or seller in this model is then automatically credited with the actual price or value of the good restoring lost income to sellers; which in turn flows predominantly into the manufacturing process where businesses still purchase equipment and other factors of production normally, that is, by paying for them with the income earned from consumers buying or paying for their products (which appear free) using choice. The allocation system changes, effectively advancing the economic model. This would be the effective solution to piracy and would channel significant income to individuals and businesses selling these products giving them the resources they need to further improve what they offer. A software developer, television and movie studio or musician would gain by governments ensuring an economic system is in place where they are automatically credited with the fair value of any purchase of their product anywhere in the world and since the consumer is credited for the choice they made the purchase seems free effectively out-competing piracy and eliminating the main capacity of piracy to erode earnings. Piracy is merely a symptom of the need for governments to advance their financial systems, economic models and will have no solution until they do. New  more powerful economic models such as a Superconsumption model are inevitable and governments will have to explore them to prevent stagnation in productivity and industry. It will also ensure that the wealth required to further enhance these industries finds its way into the hands of businesses, researchers, artists and related industries.

Businesses will thrive and Humanity will not suffer from lack of resources in future

The poverty we see today will not continue into the future. Humanity will thrive. Science and technology will create very high standards of living. However, having everything it wants may create new challenges for humanity that have to do with having too much rather than too little.

When a Superconsumption model advances into a Utopian model human beings serve only three basic purposes: firstly to consume, secondly creative expression and thirdly to procreate in order to naturally increase population size, spread that population as far and wide as is possible to prevent extinction and to  increase consumption in order to continually grow industry. This is interesting as it is quite different from the type of planning seen in countries today.

To an economy the purpose and real value of an individual human being from birth is to supply a unique consumption fingerprint. This "finger print" is the individual's choice. Human choice is consequently more valuable than money. Governments therefore will have to act to remove money as a barrier to consumption to all household goods or products that fall in certain categories without doing away with price or value, which is passed on from the household level to the industry. Human choice will consequently determine the allocation of wealth to the superstructure of industry. Indeed many individual choices when put together coincide since many people like the same products, but no two people will tend to have exactly the same basket of goods and services. Nevertheless, the reality remains that human beings do not see this consumption as their reason for existence. In fact this is one distinguishing factor between human intelligence and AI. Human beings are born generally without knowing what purpose their existence serves. Through life experience a human being persistently tries to find that purpose. This lack of predictability pushes the boundaries of satisfaction in human beings and nourishes human existence, but can also have a dark side arising from a lack of fulfillment all of which personify what it is to be human. AI on the other hand will be created by human beings to serve a specific purpose, for example, drive a car, clean an office building, and so on. Regardless of what an AI does, even if it is AI developing and producing other AIs; it is created with a purpose, even if that purpose is leisure or procrastination. The ethos of satisfaction for any form of intelligence be it AI or not is easy to fulfill or work around if there is a pre-existing purpose or that purpose can be definitively reprogrammed from time to time. AIs are likely to have an IQ tailored to the task at hand, will likely be easier to understand and less emotionally complicated than human beings. Consequently, they will not for the most part face the inner turmoil concerning direction, that ultimately contributes to what makes a human being human. 

In a Utopian model consumption is very aggressive since money is no longer a general barrier to consumption, rather people earn money from consumption or are paid by the goods and services they consume. Population size is therefore what ultimately drives economic growth. In this model, for the first time, human beings become more valuable to governments than assets and money. Since scarcity is no longer a major concern governments would rather have very large populations in order to generate markets. They will push for the highest possible population growth rates by discouraging contraception and encouraging a greater number of children per family in order to fuel economic growth. Since the only limitation to population growth is geographic space to accommodate very large populations the push by governments to find land and living space will become intense. This is when humanity is likely to seriously see the beginning of the establishment of new colonies beyond earth to facilitate unhindered natural growth in population sizes or markets.