Sunday, 17 January 2016

Are flying drones the next big leap in civilian transportation?

With increasing populations around the world roads are becoming ever more congested as the number of vehicles steadily rises. Many a motorist stuck in traffic have looked up into the empty blue sky and wished there was a way they could escape the congestion. It used to be the case that the only vehicle that could safely provide the vertical lift required was a helicopter. However a helicopter, with its primitive wide swinging blades has never been a viable option to consider as an option.  A flying car would need certain minimum requirements the first being vertical lift off and landing,  second great stability to operate in confined spaces in and around buildings, thirdly a propulsion system that will allow ascent and descent in close proximity to people without posing any injury, fourth maneuverability and ease of piloting or operation.

Many false starts and ongoing attempts at building a flying passenger car have been going on for many years such that the fact that what the Ehang-184 has achieved may be underestimated and underplayed. Below are a few of the very serious attempts to build a flying car that the Ehang-184 seems to have suddenly overtaken or overshadowed.    

Moller Skycar

Aeromobile 3.0


Terrafugia


Terrafugia Concept


Germany's Multicopter VC-200

The PAL V ONE Flying Car
 

Hover Bike 2014: Lets not leave out the 
flying motorbike.

Airmule

Many attempts at flying cars or flying urban vehicles for use by passengers have been made. There have always been stability problems that the Chinese Company Ehang seems to have cracked by applying quadcopter technology as the means of propulsion with stability. 

The Ehang-184 places China firmly ahead in this auspicious
race, an amazing achievement. 

Many attempts have been made at creating a flying car. The first serious attempt that satisfies the VTOL requirement that I came across many years ago was the Moller Skycar. After watching videos of the Moller Skycar being tested even back then it became obvious that this vehicle had a huge hurdle to overcome in terms of stability. Most likely the engines were not appropriate for vertical take-offs and landings. Other attempts at flying cars either incorporated helicopter blades that may not work well in close spaces or that included foldable wings. Wings however, entail that the VTOL ability is absent. These vehicles certainly may have other uses, but may not be appropriate as urban or civilian flying cars. The best and most recent attempt came in the form of the Air-mule  being developed by UrbanAreo. Watching videos of the air-mule showed that this was one of the most promising attempts at creating a flying car thus far. However, observing videos of the test flights of the air-mule there seem to be tell-tale instability issues that still need to be dealt with. This may stem from the fact that the Air-mule uses only two instead of four fans. The Hover Bike concept began with a similar two propeller concept but only became more stable when when the propeller system was changed from two to a quadcopter configuration . The fact that Ehang has proven quadcopter technology can be up-scaled from a small prototype to a large passenger vehicle whilst maintaining stability shows hat that projects like the Hover Bike are practical business prospects with a good potential for high returns and worth being supported by investors.

Anyone in the automobile industry not investing in these flying urban vehicle innovations in order to stay ahead of such disruptive-technologies is not doing their due diligence and will lose out in a big way as they simply do not understand the future or revolutionary potential here. You don't want to be the only automobile manufacturer stuck on the ground when all your competitors are rising up, up and away from you.

An air car operated by civilians in an urban setting needs to be deadly still and stable in mid air. It seemed the hope of a flying car was as yet far off; that is, until the recent unveiling of the Ehang 184 at CES 2016. Stop the press.

History in the Making: EHANG184 The People's  Republic of China
builds the world's first flying car.
 The People's Republic of China may lose credit for this first if its importance is not recognized. It’s being played down right now, but with the invention of the Ehang-184 credit for creating the first quad prop based flying car goes to China. China, hands down, has beaten everyone else in this endeavour even technologically advanced countries such as the United States. This is a historic event that no-one seems to understand the huge implications of. The test video showing the 184 take-off and land is the very first time a compact vehicle the size of a small car has been shown to take off and land with the stability that makes it immediately applicable to operating in urban environments. The technology itself is not new, this kind of drone technology has been around for quite a while now, however, it has been restricted to miniaturized drones mostly used for recreation, some have cameras mounted on them and companies like Amazon are even considering using them to deliver packages to clients. The Multicopter developed in Germany is impressive but it maintains the shape of a helicopter that is not as yet suitable for urban environments. 

The Ehang 184 is therefore the first serious attempt to take drone technology and evolve it into something that can be used as a personal urban flying car or vehicle. The stability of miniature drones currently used is very impressive. For instance operators, drivers or pilots in drone racing show just how remarkably stable and incredibly maneuverable drones are. Flying cars may be made so stable by quad copter technologies that they can float temporarily alongside conventional automobiles, moving along until there is sufficient overhead clearance for vertical take off. What has been unknown thus far is whether when upscaled to a life-size passenger vehicle this impressive stability will be maintained. The Ehang 184 proves that it is maintained and that drone technology can be used to build easy to operate flying cars.  The creation of the Ehang 184 can be considered to have the potential to be on par with Henry Ford’s historic design and development of the model T. Its designers already appear to have production line assembly in mind. The 184 has an independent chassis. The cabin or cockpit can be separated from the chassis allowing diverse types of cabins to be built around the chassis something useful when it comes to mass production.

Flying vehicles based on drone technology can have innumerable uses other than personal transportation. They can be built to carry heavier payloads and used by emergency services to put out forest fires with on board water canons and rescue people in high rise buildings. They can be turned into observation platforms and used by game parks where tours can consist of flying quietly and safely over wildlife. Perches placed high up on towers can be built where these vehicles land and recharge several meters in the air, whilst tourists observe a wild life sanctuary from a birds eye view. They can be used as ambulances and so on. They can even be used to more efficiently hoist building materials in place of cranes in the construction of high rise buildings. In these conditions the drone could even remain tethered to a power supply line since it operates  in a closed area.

Its very easy to designate a specific altitude for police and emergency vehicles only dramatically cutting down response times. Flying cars offer improved transportation, shorter travel times and lower congestion.

Safety Concerns: Flying cars will be much safer to drive than conventional automobiles

Automobiles are dangerous because they drive at ground or street level, the same level people conventionally walk on. In addition to this a narrow road has many obstacles such as vehicles traveling head on in the next lane and obstacles such as buildings, pavements, drainage ditches and pedestrians. Its no wonder that developing the technology for driverless cars has proven a challenge. There are so many variables a ground based car has to account for and maneuver around. Flying cars are likely to prove a form of transportation much safer than automobiles. This is due to the fact that a flying car will tend to operate at higher speeds only when it is in the sky way above any contact with pedestrians or buildings on the same vertical plane. Even when it is about to park, a flying car can maintain an altitude above pedestrians and other cars thereby minimizing the possibility of collusion, while it descends vertically to ground level into an appropriate parking space from which it will similarly rise. Redundancies can be in place when engines fail to ensure safe landing for those on board and safety for those below. If the aerial lanes created for flying cars are carefully designed its easy to avoid head on collisions caused by oncoming traffic. Since there are no buildings, ditches, street lights,  pedestrians and other obstacles in a vertical plane a flying car that veers off the aerial lane to avoid collision or due to fatigue, poor driver concentration is unlikely to encounter any obstacles to collide with or that will force it to overturn. On board systems will simply take control and return the flying car back to the aerial line. Automated flying cars will be much easier to build software and hardware for due to the fact that there are much fewer obstacles above ground than there are at ground level.

What makes flying cars safe is the very high degree of stability the quad propeller system can generate. There is a high level of redundancy so even if one electric motor fails the others can compensate and bring it safely to the ground. Even in tight ground level situations as long as the flying car remains stable in its flight the fact that it is moving at low speeds and has hover capabilities should make it much safer for urban populations to interact with than a normal automobile. Flying cars also offer the added advantage of being either manually driven or placed on autopilot. Law enforcement can insist it has the ability to communicate with a control tower to remotely place a flying car that has been identified as a potential threat on autopilot and bring it to the ground. In fact, the introduction of flying cars is likely to dramatically improve the technology around sensitive sites and buildings that monitors and engages air traffic making these kinds of threats less dangerous than they would be without flying cars.

For urban use the challenge is to make flying cars stable and safe enough that the public is comfortable to have them fly above, move beside, take off and land alongside conventional cars. For instance a drone flying car moving beside conventional cars in slow areas such as a busy street or parking lot may in fact be many times safer than a conventional car when it comes to collisions. Since it is riding on a cushion of air the resistance to impacts is lower than a vehicle with wheels fixed on the ground, therefore even if it did make low level contact with another vehicle in these conditions there may be little damage. The same applies to it drifting and making contact with a person, when such contact occurs at very low speeds it is less likely to be as dangerous as making the same contact with a conventional vehicle on the ground which will have much greater resistance to anything it impacts. This being the case could make the integration of flying cars into the same space as conventional cars at very low speeds quite feasible. What is important is that when a flying  car loses contact with the ground on lift off it do so in a very stable fashion without any unnecessary lateral drift whatsoever.  Moving personal transportation into the skies above has the potential to free up space on busy streets making them much friendlier for cyclists, conventional cars and growing numbers of pedestrians. If high rise parking becomes commonplace these vehicles would not even need to park on the street, they would instead move from the air straight into a high rise building leaving the streets below less congested. .

The truth is that flying cars may dramatically reduce deaths caused by conventional automobiles. The fear that they pose a threat in that they can be commandeered by people with evil intent can be countered by governments simply creating aerial or sky lanes to which flying vehicles must adhere. Unlike conventional cars that move incognito the movement of every flying car would be monitored in real time using a kind of flying urban vehicle air traffic control system where any strange flight movement would be picked up by computers and alert relevant authorities. In any case there would be a dramatic increase in police force response times and the monitoring of urban airspace that would make it safer than it is today. Instead of taking hours or even minutes police officers in a flying car or on Hover Bikes flying at the designated emergency urban altitude could be at the scene of a crime in seconds. Obviously the police force will have access to the same vehicles and any flying car that veers from a sky lane can immediately be identified by law enforcement and intercepted or pushed into autopilot by traffic control and made to safely descend to the ground.

Competition

Now that the cat is out of the bag and the flying car has literally been built the question remains how long can China stay ahead of the curve in terms of rolling the commercialization of this technology. Ehang, as a company, is unlikely to stay ahead of the competition without investment and support from the government of China as a means of facilitating improvements in this technology, mass production that leads to lower costs and a lower retail price. If the Ehang 184 were targeted at the automobile market then at a cost of US$200,000 to US$300,000 it is still way too expensive for the general car buying public to consider having a flying car parked next to the family 4x4 Suv. At present it can only carry one passenger which limits its uses as a practical family flying vehicle of the future available today. The other limitation is the 25 minute flying time. The reality of this is that a VTOL flying car does not get stuck in traffic and it travels to its destination using straight line distances, therefore, even this current low flying time would still make it viable.  

The fact remains that we now know flying drones can be scaled up to create highly stable flying personal cars. The real test is to see who can find a way of mass producing these vehicles in a manner that makes them affordable to the general public. Ehang faces serious potential competition from companies like Tesla in the United States that have invested heavily in battery technology and mass production  techniques. These can be adapted to building passenger based VTOL flying cars like the Ehang 184 that, with improved batteries and super fast recharging times, can travel faster for much longer distances yet be available at the same price as an automobile. The battery powered Tesla Model S for instance is roughly five times more powerful than the Ehang being said to be able to belt out 700 horse power (hp) compared to the Ehang's 142hp. To give some perspective as to why electric car technology is more suited for flying vehicles, the Tesla Model S may have a range of 482 Km (300 miles) on a single charge, but to cover that mileage on normal roads averaging 95 Km/h could take close to five hours. If electric cars discharge or use up batteries on the basis of time used rather than just work done, e.g. 5 hrs of continuous work rather than distance per say, then a flying car designed to use battery power would harness the battery for just 25 minutes and straight distance to get to the 482Km roadway destination rather than 5 hours allowing innovation in battery technology tied to flying urban vehicles to push the distances people can travel on a single charge. Shorter flying times or "kangaroo hops" that cover much longer distances in a much shorter time to and from or over multiple destinations may entail that battery power such as that designed by companies like Tesla is useful for conventional automobiles but is the perfect power source for flying cars, especially with the option of flying car owners to charge their cars at home.

There are leading car manufacturers around the world with deep pockets that can easily jump on the flying car band wagon due to the fact the basic technology used to make drones fly is available off the shelf. Its really a just a question of which individual or company sees the potential market and which businesses will have the insight to see this as the next big thing in transportation and be aggressive enough to try and gain a piece of the market. Automobile manufacturers for instance would want to stay ahead of the competition in this regard.

Automobiles Vs Flying Cars 

Today's impressive modern interchanges and superhighways may become
eerily empty tourist attractions from a bygone era
 with future generations wondering why their ancestors built them.
 It is unlikely that flying cars or passenger drones will pose serious competition or a threat to conventional ground based automobiles. However, it is certain that every family or company will want the VTOL option as surely as people buy vehicles for different reasons. Its common for people to have an SUV as well as a sedan vehicle, quad bikes, boats and so on depending on what the use is and affordability. People and industry may want cars for shorter distances and VTOL cars for long distances. A flying car like the Ehang 184 when expanded to carry more passengers is likely to be just another important vehicle to have for specific uses and will not have a major impact on automobile sales in the beginning, but even if demand for flying cars outstrips demand for automobiles it is more likely than not automobile manufacturers to day will be the flying car manufacturers of tomorrow. They are likely to simply expand the scope of their production to include passenger drones or flying cars. The technology required for a flying drone is not that much more complex than that already being applied by car manufacturers in the vehicles they are building today.

However, if flying cars become so much more efficient and so much more applicable to transportation than cars it could become a transformative event. Most of the world's automobile manufacturers would then very well have to consider retrofitting their manufacturing plants to mass produce flying cars instead of automobiles to remain competitive. This scenario cannot be ruled out altogether. If this were to happen then amazing highways and complex interchanges found in wealthy countries that people living in poorer developing countries so admire would inevitably become obsolete. Like the Great Wall of China they will have once served a grand purpose for transporting the populace around but must naturally wind up as tourist attractions. In the same way that we see tourists strolling down the iconic Great Wall of China crowds of tourists arriving on flying cars might possibly be found strolling along today's complex road interchanges that have become eerily empty, while a tour guide explains what they were used for as they stand like a monolith to a by gone age.

Commercial Transport and Freight

A significant impact of drone technology may have is on heavy duty freight in the transport industry. Firstly drones may be designed to reach average cruising speeds of 600 Km/h. Goods transported by truck must follow roads and cannot make use of straight line distances between destinations. Quad propeller systems are possibly the only modern day technology that can lift freight consisting of very large tonnages. This is due to the fact that the number of quad propellers attached to freight can be increased comparative to the load to be lifted and as the Ehang 184 shows propellers can be stacked using double co-axial double rotor technology. The Ehang 184 stacks 2 co-axial double rotor propellers, but whose to say the technology to stack 10 or 15 independently driven propellers cannot be developed? This vented "tube" of stacked propellers would enhance thrust capability significantly increasing the loads that can be lifted especially where heavy duty lifting is required.

 A truck hauling 50 tonnes of product from Lusaka to Kitwe, a distance of close to 500 Km can take as long as 10 hours of driving for a freight company to deliver due to low speed and frequent stops. A company hauling the same large freight using a heavy duty quad propeller system and straight-line distance could move the same heavy load to Kitwe in 30 minutes. If it uses a rechargeable battery system for the delivery its diesel costs could also fall. The risk of transporting the freight would also fall significantly due to there being fewer obstacles for a flying truck to avoid in the sky than on the ground. Deliveries would be quicker, maintenance costs would be lower and the risk of moving freight would decline dramatically. Flying trucks would be able to deliver freight to previously inaccessible areas where roads are in poor shape or simply don't exist at all. This would allow development in rural, remote and previously inaccessible regions of a country to take place more rapidly transforming lives. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a vast mineral rich country that faces inadequate road infrastructure. Roads are normally a pre-requisite for countries like the DRC to be able to adequately exploit abundant natural resource wealth. However, flying cars, buses and trucks would remove roads as a stumbling block to rapid economic growth for a nation like the DRC. Development could take place and the road infra-structure follow later.

Being able to move a large percentage of heavy freight and abnormal loads from roads into the air using flying trucks would help sustain and extend the life of the national tarred road network helping governments save considerable income. Governments that make the deliberate decision to shift the total bulk of national transportation from road bound  automobiles to flying cars, trucks and buses are likely to save costs by reducing dependency on asphalt roads. It would revolutionize not only the transport system but dramatically increase productivity as well as distribute national development more widely and more equitably. These countries would have significant advantages over countries that do not strongly pursue this technology that would suddenly find themselves moving too slowly to remain technologically competitive. For instance if the government of China supported the Ehang 184 flying car project with the objective of this becoming the new future template for transportation in China any other country that did not do the same or that remained with transportation system based on grounded transport would be considered too slow, burdened by a slow transport network, backward and fall significantly behind.

If the concept of a flying freight truck delivering heavy duty goods in minutes rather than days between cities like Lusaka and Kitwe, Ndola or Livingstone through the air rather than by road sounds far fetched, the bottom line is that a flying truck is already said to be in the process of being built and tested. Its referred to as "the Black Knight". Its being built by Advanced Tactics and is said to already be in advanced stages of development  for the United States Military. See the video below.


Flying Truck for moving freight and troops

A Transformation of Urban Living

The other dramatic change flying cars could bring is demographic. The average driving time for a car from Lusaka to Kitwe via Ndola for instance is roughly five hours. Flying cars or buses could cut this time down from 5 hours to 30 minutes or less allowing people to opt to live in one city, state or province but work in another. People living in Kitwe, Livingstone or Ndola could work in Lusaka and vice versa, commuting easily from their homes to work and back each day. Construction work and other commercial activity between different cities that involves the movement of materials and personnel would be reduced facilitating faster construction times.

At present despite countries having vast arrays of empty land cities are becoming ever more congested due to the fact that people desire to live in close proximity with the central business district for employment, shopping, access to services, road networks and so on. At present roads must create accessibility before constructing homes and other buildings. Generally people will build their homes beside or near an accessible road. Since flying urban vehicles can clear  tree-tops, do not immediately need roads and are faster methods of travel urban dwelling places can be moved to any area where land is freely available. People can build homes in places they would not have considered before, further away from the CBD without having to first wait for roads to be introduced, the tarred roads can follow later. Suburbs and other accommodation could be moved as far off as 500Km from a CBD in areas people would not previously chose to live without affecting movement to and from places of employment. This may help decongest cities and even rapidly move development to rural areas.

The fact that a flying car or truck can cut travel times from 5 hours to 30 minutes or less makes air born urban vehicles 10 times more efficient at moving goods and people than land bound automobiles. Airlines would be able to increase the scope of their services and reach a much wider demographic since at present air travel is too expensive for the majority. Bus companies purchasing flying buses would also participate by being able to expand from ground travel to air quadcopter-bus based air travel.

Flying cars will also have a significant impact on poverty in developing countries. Developing countries face many challenges when it comes to developing road infra-restructure. At present a good road network is mandatory for any country to develop, however, asphalt roads can be very expensive to build and maintain. Even when they are built often these roads can only reach main cities and important locations leaving out remote villages and towns which will still have to wait for a very long time before they receive tarred roads. Flying cars allow rapid development and the connection of remote areas even before tarred roads are built. Consequently economic activity and communication with these areas can be more immediate thereby significantly raising living standards.

Governments and businesses operating in competitive global environments cannot ignore such a huge jump in efficiency that has the potential to dramatically improve living standards,  raise GDP, increase productivity, lower cost and increase profitability.

Improved living standards

As people resort to flying cars there are likely to be fewer and fewer conventional cars moving on the ground. Flying cars create their own highways or skyways. Governments could for instance designate a highway altitude every ten meters where millions of flying cars travel at different altitudes to different destinations. Higher altitudes can be allocated to higher speeds the same way there is a dedicated fast lane for cars. As flying cars become more popular architecture will change allowing people to park the flying cars from the sky directly onto buildings with the majority never having to touch ground. Fewer cars on the ground means that ground level can be enjoyed more by cyclists and pedestrians. More ground can be dedicated for recreational use. More green spaces can be created.

As might be expected human beings have already began to imagine what skyways with many cars might look like. Here is that sensational Coruscant clip from Star Wars, interestingly, notice how the artist conceptualisation of this clip includes no vehicles on the ground in the city, only pedestrians:



Remarkable Stability of Quadcopter Technology

Looking at the video the Ehang 184's single greatest achievement is remarkable stability. Everything else is not as crucial as this. The short 25 minute flying time and low pay load for example are not a problem as these can be dramatically extended through further scaling up and readily available technology. Improved speeds and VTOL capabilities entail that a 25 minute flight could cover the distance that would take a car 5 or more hours. Therefore, even short flying times will not prevent this technology from eventually becoming viable.

Flying drones are remarkable in that they are able to withstand being buffeted by cross winds. The ultimate challenge would be for a flying car to easily and safely vertically land and take off from a conventional parking space found in a any open or closed parking lot. As long as a drone or quad copter flying car can be stable enough to move temporarily alongside cars, for instance for indoor or covered parking lots and from this space can mount to heights that easily and safely clears conventional cars it may be possible to integrate them into conventional spaces used by vehicles if authorities are forward thinking.  This is why mid air stability at very low altitudes is the single most important factor in this type of vehicle.  

For the Ehang 184 it may be necessary to consider building a chassis that encompasses the blades of the propellers  to allow the vehicle to operate in close spaces expected of urban environments as has been done with the Air-Mule and Hover Bike. In addition to this a stiff mesh topside and bottom-side of  the rotor that allows air through without affecting aerodynamics would also improve safety for civilians near the rotors.

Government and planning

Forward thinking governments will need to be more supportive and more open to the concept of previously empty skies filled with urban flying cars and other vehicles as governments that resist this transformation are likely to be left behind by more adaptive countries. The advantages provided by flying cars, trucks and buses and the other uses of this technology applied to modern urban environments is too significant for any modern government to ignore or delay the advancement of. The impact this technology can have on poverty, living standards, productivity, demography, GDP and socio-economic advancement in both developing and developed countries is tremendous such that any government planning for how its economy can get ahead in the future would have to seriously plan to bring this technology into the mainstream.


Official Ehang 184 video launch CES 2016

Gyroscopic Force Levitation

Why haven't I included my own flying car concept? Well, because the propulsion system I designed is not based on quadcopter technology instead my design concept harnesses centriptal forces and does not use aerodynamics or air to generate lift. The concept is in this sense more advanced than a quadcopter. Imagine a tin can large enough to put someone inside with the top and the bottom removed. The tin can rests on a flat smooth surface. If the person inside the can pushed against the walls the can would move in any direction it was being pushed (see the simple diagram below). The person's feet touching the ground provide the resistance with which to move the can, hover, in the gyrscopic device the same force is simply generated by momentum. This is the basic concept of the propulsion system for this kind of VTOL concept that would be able to operate in any environment, that is, above ground, under water and even in space. More about this here.


Gyroscopic Levitation explained




Friday, 15 January 2016

Barack Obama: We could not have asked for a better President

When a steady hand was needed, yours was at the wheel.
Thank you, Mr. Obama.

When the United States needed a steady hand at the helm, it found one in Mr. Obama. Let’s take the time to sincerely say thank you.  Thank you, Mr. Obama for holding down the fort and for a job well done. You have done us proud.

Let’s not pretend being president is simple work. It’s easy for a college educated arm chair critic to listen to a speech (like President Obama’s Final State of the Union Address) and cherry pick faults in any leader and administration; juggle some statistics, throw in some words gleaned from a thesaurus in order to sound gifted and hand in a clever article to show the editor he or she is not sleeping on the job. The basic truth is that in 2009 the United States needed a leader with Obama’s temperament, intelligence, broad mindedness and candor. The United States and the world was fortunate one was found. When the final whistle is blown the least a decent human being can do, even if they were the opposition, is recognize the talent, shake hands and say well played. The bottom line is that when Obama hands over the mantle in 2017 to the next president the United States will be in a better place than it was before he took office and there is a long list of his achievements to back this. Anyone who thinks a leader this stable, of this quality and caliber just rolls off an assembly line, needs to think again. Let’s give respect where respect is due.

The world today has many very complex problems. Many of these cannot be solved because humanity’s fundamental understanding of the causes even at a tertiary level of education is lacking therefore they will be here for a long time to come. Who will be the next president of the United States a Republican or Democrat? It all depends on what the United States needs at this juncture. A nation elects a leader it believes will provide a solution to its perceived woes, and the candidate be it Republican or Democrat who in the psyche of the people fulfills this role, avoids tarnishing what has been achieved thus far, will be the next president of the United States of America; it will have very little to do with popularity.

Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Our hearts go out to the people of France

Our hearts go out to the People of France and to all the victims of violence in Africa and across the world. The recent murder of innocent civilians by ISIL is a tragedy and the world mourns. ISIL is clearly a rogue organisation that has stumbled into the opaque wilderness of human terror in search of dubious goals rendered meaningless by their ugly price.

Every human being is fundamentally a volatile mass of life experiences and ideas. For any human being to reach a place in the human soul or mindset where they accede to causing carnage of this kind upon their fellow men, women and children in this era in which so much has been achieved seems to defy how far humanity has come.  

Tuesday, 6 October 2015

Countering the inflation crisis in Zambia for the long term



Answer this very simple question. If Zambian consumers, suppliers and industries holding kwacha wanted to buy US$10 billion worth of goods and services from the United States today why should the fact that there are no US dollars in the Zambian economy act as a barrier to them doing this? Why? Why should a 50% rise in inflation be allowed by governments to erode the capacity of their markets to effectively demand and purchase those goods from US$10 billion to US$5 billion? This also represents a potential 50% decline in orders for US goods and services. Barriers to trade created by currency exchange barriers make absolutely no business sense whatsoever except for money traders; counter-productive speculators (who incidentally Jesus kicked out of the Temple). There must be an intrinsic and important reason why he did this. Maybe its about time modern governments did the same. The fact is money traders and speculators will always find some place or some way to trade, this is why places like casinos and Les Vegas were invented. Real world speculation and speculators who try to exploit the margins between exchange rates of national currencies such that they rob the economy of the productive value of its labour need to be countered by government, speculation shouldn't be at the expense of the true value of human labour; which is a serious human rights concern. Currency barriers that require “currency exchange” prior to international trade stifle growth in both wealthy and poor nations. They fuel real world speculation rather than accelerate global economic activity.  

The currency exchange barrier can be likened to the limitations created by archaic and impractical systems which were in place before such as the gold standard. When central banks agree to remove the currency exchange barrier as they dispensed with the gold standard money will be able to do much more work for economies than it is capable of doing at present. The United States alone is missing out on trillions of dollars worth of global sales of US goods and services as a result of this barrier. All that this barrier seems to do is generate billions of dollars for a few money traders at the expense of creating trillions of dollars worth of trade, which in turn translates to millions of lost jobs, and forgone incomes for the American people. The stance of the Federal Reserve Bank of America should be, if you want to purchase US goods for consumption outside the United States we don’t care where in the world you are, you can change whatever currency you have worked for in your country for our United States dollars unconditionally and knock yourself out buying American goods and services because by doing so you are accelerating growth in the United States, creating jobs, feeding families and boosting trade. In other words the United States government is saying the money a person or company earns through its labour and creativity will be recognised and honoured by the United States; we will not disrespect human labour by asking you to jump through any hoops created by exchange barriers. The idea that demand will be too high is unfounded since to earn a local currency like the Kwacha businesses and consumers have to work for it; this alone is the only true and justifiable barrier that all governments should respect and adhere to, to bolster a genuine belief in human rights. And if the United States feels it can’t handle this kind of demand for its goods and services, the truth is that the rest of the world will gladly step in to ease that pressure by accepting those United States dollars for their goods and services as well. This one progressive change in the US Fed’s policy would catapult not only the US, but the entire world out of depression into an economic boom.

 Master and Slave Currencies


Dr Martin Luther King would agree that asking
for equality is not a crime.

Give Us, Us Free.....
As long as institutions such as the US Federal Reserve do not make the effort to make their international currencies unconditionally exchangeable what happens is that the financial system  becomes backward and continues to exist in an era in which you have “Master” and “Slave” currencies. I have written on this problem in considerable detail here where I describe currencies like the Zambian kwacha as “Slave” currencies and internationally tradable currencies such as the US dollar as  “Master” currencies. Every country wants to have an Imperial or  Master currency, because lets be frank, if you had a choice between being a slave or a master in any situation the embarrassing choice would be obvious. Even the European Union seeks a Master currency through the Euro. But the reality is Master and Slave economies even in financial systems are generally backward and retard rather than support fast economic growth. Until such a time that governments agree through central banks to have unconditionally exchangeable currencies to counter the slave-master reality in finance, there is nothing any country can do to genuinely protect its people from the erosion of the value of their labour through exposure to changing currency rates. Note the word “exposure”. This in my view is a human rights issue. The current international currency system is like radiation. The source of radiation is the relationship between master and slave currencies. Exposure to this radiation causes sickness called inflation and deflation to which slave currencies as a result of not being unconditionally exchangeable suffer the most. Master currencies which can demand goods and services from any geographic location or country in the world with or without conversion are immune to this kind of inflation.  Slave currencies on the other hand work in this radiation without any protective clothing and are highly susceptible to illness, that is, depreciation, inflation or deflation. These present day institutions have used hard currencies to create a modern day Trans-Atlantic Slave trade where the labour of least developed nations like Zambia is controlled by the ability to erase the value of productivity through inflation created by the currency barrier. 

Independence and the struggle for economic freedom



The new financial Empire...



Many people will not understand what I am trying to explain here about the currency barrier and how currencies are used today to strip nations of their economic freedom. The reality of this problem is difficult to grasp. The best simplified explanation would be as follows: Zambia gained political independence on 24th October 1964. During the struggle for independence one of the infamous examples of prejudice handed down to us is that of indigenous Zambians not being allowed into shops owned by colonialists at the time. As an indigenous Zambian, to make a purchase you were not allowed inside the store, but would have to go to the shop window for the store owner to serve you. Today this kind of prejudice in Zambia and around the world is considered despicable and unacceptable. It is regarded as an abuse of human rights. No corner grocery or supermarket chain, be it Shoprite, Pick'nPay or Spar would apply this kind of discrimination in the present day, there would be an uproar from the public. And yet the currency barrier is in fact a more damaging and a far greater example of discrimination than this. However, the fact that no-one speaks against it or raises an iota of objection to it shows that people are oblivious to what the meaning of economic independence entails. Since as a Zambian today you cannot take Zambian Kwacha and purchase goods and services with it directly from the international market; this is exactly the same as not being allowed to enter a store through the front door during colonial days. (The very same prejudice people like Dr Kenneth Kaunda fought during the struggle for Zambia's independence.) You are told instead to go to the "shop window" to exchange your Kwacha there. When you get to the "shop-window" to buy your groceries the shop owner then tells you that you cannot directly exchange your Zambian Kwacha for US Dollars which is the only currency he accepts in his store. He points to a field and says: your Kwacha is worthless, first go and till that field, add fertilizer, then when the crop is ready come and exchange it here in my shop for dollars as an "export", then you can buy groceries from me. Your response might be to point to the field next door saying: but I have already tilled that field for one month from sunrise to sunset and my employer paid me this Zambian Kwacha as a slalry. To which the shop owner impatiently replies: when you bring me the crop from tilling the field I showed you, I will give you dollars for the crop, then you can exchange these dollars for your Kwacha salary you have already earned, are you happy now? You, the Zambian at the shop window scratch your head and reply: but Sir, if I exchange my Zambian Kwacha I sweated for already as my salary and you give me your US dollars in exchange, so that  I buy my family groceries from your shop window, since I am not allowed to buy through the front door, then it means I have tilled two fields for two months, from sunrise to sunset to buy one basket of groceries that is supposed to only cost one month's salary - I am working twice for one purchase! The shop owner frowns and says: look you are wasting my time, if you don't want to buy then go away and let me serve the next Zambian customer in the queue.     

The grocery owner in this sketch is the international market and the central banking system that supports hard currencies. The customer sent from the front door to the shop window represents countries around the world like Zambia with slave currencies. "first go and till the field" [is the barrier] it means you cannot buy directly from the international market with your domestic currency, you must go to the "shop window", that is, you must invest in and build up an export industry e.g. Copper in Zambia, Diamonds in Botswana, Cocoa in Ghana, Sugar in Brazil. The response "But I have already tilled the field" means that the value in the domestic currency of these countries already represent work, labour and productivity. "When you bring me the crop" means that the international market, governments and central banks producing and fronting hard currencies choose to only recognise exports and refuse to recognise the value of work, labour and productivity already existent in domestic currencies.  "Then it means I have tilled two fields." This basically means that in order for countries like Zambia to have the hard currency by which to buy from the international market in real terms the economy first worked for domestic currency, then worked for foreign exchange as the two are dependent on one another for the domestic economy to transact in the international economy. At the end of the day or month the domestic economy holds both currencies. This represents two loads or exertions. How? Firstly the domestic currency is exchanged for US Dollars. The Zambian seller loses the domestic currency to gain the US Dollars, this loss is the first load. Secondly the Zambian seller takes the US Dollars exchanges them for the desired imports. These US Dollars are lost to gain the import. At the end of the day the Zambian has gained the required imports, but in order to do so has lost not only the Kwacha which was exchanged, but also the US Dollars that were used to pay for the imports. The combined cost of the imports can be considered to be both the Kwacha and the US Dollars, i.e. the two fields illustrated in the sketch. I hope this explanation is more succinct. Imports cost twice what they're worth in labour terms to a country with a slave currency.

Governments of developed countries involved in Racketeering & Human Trafficking 

Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another. -  Wikipedia 2015.

The United States Government and the European Union need to revisit the relationship between internationally tradable hard currencies and non-tradable domestic currencies in order to reform how these currencies function. The currency barrier if correctly understood can be defined as the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour and commercial exploitation which occurs within countries that have domestic currencies that are not internationally tradable. The fact that people in these nations are forced to exchange local currency for the Dollar or Euro is nothing less than commercial exploitation. The fact that this exchange forces them to produce exportable products and use the same labour to pay twice for imports is clearly a form of commercial slavery or forced labour. In essence these esteemed governments are engaged in human trafficking on a daunting scale. This human trafficking hurts developing countries like Zambia by forcefully depreciating their currencies, causing inflation and foreign exchange shortages. These shortages of foreign exchange are a direct result of human trafficking and racketeering implemented by hard currencies selectively shutting out local currencies like the Kwacha from the international market using prejudice and biases to skew the financial system in favour of the United States and EU Member States. It amounts to nothing less than governments of the developed world stealing from the poor using methods associated with criminals and organised crime. The currency barrier is a clear example of the United States and EU governments engaged in racketeering. The use of the currency barrier and associated hard currencies to exploit developing countries is a very serious international crime with victims being poor nations such as Zambia around the world facing dire life threatening economic problems. Racketeering, often associated with organized crime, is the act of offering of a dishonest service (a "racket") to solve a problem that wouldn't otherwise exist without the enterprise offering the service. Racketeering as defined by the RICO act includes a list of 35 crimes. Passed in 1970, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) is a federal law designed to combat organized crime in the United States. It allows prosecution and civil penalties for racketeering activity performed as part of an ongoing criminal enterprise. The use of hard currencies creates a fictitious problem that would otherwise not exist. This fictitious problem is the currency barrier that exploits countries without currencies able to purchase directly from the international market. Forcing countries, governments with currencies that are not tradable on the international market and the economies they manage to export goods and services under the threat that if they do not do so their currencies will depreciate, economies will flounder using an imaginary and contrived problem called the currency barrier which wouldn't otherwise exist is a textbook example of extortion used by organised crime.  Following the the Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organisations Act (RICO), according to United States Federal Law, the US Government, European Union and the US Federal Reserve are liable for prosecution and civil penalties. This means that the use of hard currencies to create the currency barrier places the United States Government in very serious and prosecutable violation of its own Federal Laws. Countries like Zambia and/or groups who are victims living in these countries disadvantaged by this racket could pursue a class action law suite to seek redress in the US itself through the United States Justice system. The manner in which the international financial system uses the currency barrier to prevent currencies like the Zambian Kwacha from purchasing goods directly from the international market or being unconditionally exchangeable for hard currencies such as the US Dollar and the European Euro is a racket that falls under the jurisdiction of the  US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to investigate. Being a form of state corruption, or organised crime it is a prosecutable offense that can be brought against the US Government, its Department of the Treasury and the US Federal Reserve Bank. It would therefore be incumbent on the FBI to protect the financial security and integrity of the United States by ensuring that its government agencies are prevented from using hard currencies and the currency barrier to break US laws. The basic means to do this is for the EU and US government agencies to work toward bringing justice, equality and equity to all currencies and to correct the current corrupt financial system that governs sovereign currencies.  The “ego” of being the sole proprietor of a hard currency can lead to misuse and misapplication of said hard currency that becomes inimical to the State which at some point in time must be addressed by institutions created to correct problems of this kind. 

The “ego” of being the sole proprietor of a hard currency can lead to misuse and misapplication of said hard currency that becomes inimical to the State which at some point in time must be addressed by institutions created to correct problems of this kind. Being an international racket would also require the involvement of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA and FBI should be guided by the fact that there is a functional misalignment between the political economy and the real economy concerning the ownership, application and implementation of hard currencies through the currency barrier that needs correction to protect the US economy from this serious currency racket. The currency barrier as an inadvertent form of state sponsored racketeering applied through currencies in international trade significantly curtails global demand for American made goods and services robbing the United States economy annually of billions of dollars worth of exports or sales whilst at the same time causing artificial foreign exchange scarcity in developing countries.  The role of the FBI and CIA as US institutions is to bring sobriety to this problem, remove the currency barrier and recover these tremendous, wholly unnecessary annual  financial losses on behalf of the American People so that the United States economy can begin to benefit from international trade. The negative impact of the financial losses on the United States economy contributes significantly to slow growth, unemployment, recession, lay-offs, makes US firms and industries less competitive than their international rivals and this makes it mandatory for US agencies, by law, to intervene, secure and safeguard United States economic interests. 

Human trafficking and racketeering have financial and economic consequences on victims. For anyone who understands the impact of the abuses taking place on the citizens, industries and business of countries like Zambia who battle through inflation, lack of adequate US Dollars or Euro's to support the local currency, dehumanizing inflation and its affect on livelihoods this has all the vestiges of criminality.  Human trafficking is a form of forced labour and is regarded as modern day slavery. In many scenarios desperation created by ailing economies, poverty and inadequate economic growth aggravate human trafficking and can be attributed to the the currency barrier racket perpetrated by reputable institutions such as the EU and the US government. The currency barrier and lack of unconditional exchange between currencies created by modern day prejudices is a racket that directly involves developed countries in human trafficking.  The US Government and European Union need to take the time to explain to the Zambian people today, as they suffocate in an economy being killed off by inflation resulting from a lack of hard currency in circulation, why they should continue to suffer in this way. Explain to the families that can no longer afford school fees as a result of inflation why they cannot send their children to school, explain to the families who look at rising prices on shelves why they can no longer afford even simple staple foods anymore, help them explain to their children why the family must now starve. Help explain why simple medicines and treatments are now too costly and how they must now die a slow death from hunger and curable diseases. Take the time to explain to the migrants risking their lives to cross into Europe and the developed world why the poverty, conflict and hardship they are trying to escape in their home countries cannot be solved with their local currencies. Tell them and those who have lost their lives how you are different from those vilified such as Saddam Hussein, Hitler, Goebbels or Gaddafi, as Zambians and people similarly trapped in ever-present, never ending  poverty in countries around the world die a slow death from the currency barrier. Explain to them how you are different from those who kept the Jews in labour camps and gassed them to death? Or different from those who give a slow death from chemical weapons banned by the United Nations? Is your death by the Dollar or Euro more humane maybe? Explain how its is more humane to die this way at your hands so that they can learn how to accept this culling. You are their dear friends, their development partners, you are our brothers and sisters; we love you to a fault often without condition, even when you hurt us, we still love you. So take the time to explain to these people as their business shut down, as they lose jobs, as families go without and children are forced to beg on the street; take the time to explain and help them understand how the paper and ink on the Euro or Dollar bill and the basic pride of being the sole proprietor of a hard currency is more important to you than the suffering of your brothers and sisters across the oceans. As  the Zambian Kwacha battles for the survival of its people and all it would take to save these noble people is the US Federal Reserve saying to the Bank of Zambia; Friend, let us help your Kwacha survive this national crisis by backing it with our dollar; And yet where are you? Who are you? Do these people truly know you and what your noble country stands for any more? Do your own citizens, the American People even know what kind of government represents them?  The poor, impoverished, struggling people of Zambia and people around the world in a similar predicament - disadvantaged  by the currency barrier are listening. at least make an effort to explain why money, paper and ink is more important to you than human life so that they can better endure the burden.  

The Currency Barrier: A Criminal tool for oppression and instigating regime change


You've been hit by....
Developed countries exploiting
hard currencies at the expense of
developing countries are
Smooth criminals dancing
all the way to the bank
RIEP MJ
Artificially starved of US dollars or Euros and trapped in the cycle of abuse created by the currency barrier developed countries like Zambia will be forced to try to mend their economies by having to persistently turn to institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to borrow as was observed when Zambia faced economic crisis in the 1990s. Coincidentally, the IMF was in Zambia recently dangling a billion dollars before government; a "solution" to an economic crisis created by the currency barrier, which is in turn a corrupt instrument of the developed countries who implement it. The institution offering the cure is an affiliate of the institution creating the disease - a modus operandi of "super smart" developed nations making dubious decisions. Why does it make more sense to "help" nations with huge loans that may inevitably cripple them in the future when it is much more sensible to genuinely aid them by making currencies equal? Instead of offering Zambia a billion dollars and increasing its indebtedness developed countries should stop bending over backwards to maintain racketeering and simply remove the currency barrier to unlock more than a billion dollars countries like Zambia already have trapped in their domestic currencies.  Consequently, the currency barrier becomes a racketeering tool for inducing regime change in politically weak, unwary governments and currency-destabilized developing countries. Citizens are not left to cast a genuine vote, but rather the currency barrier is used to create such great economic hardship that they are pushed by the racket to vote a sitting government out of power. Developed countries have no right to make such choices on behalf of sovereign nations. Citizens of developing countries should be free to choose which political party and leader they want to lead them through the ballot without using the currency barrier to temper choice for or against one candidate, political party or another. The present currency system is an enemy of true democracy and freedom of franchise which it undermines by using the economy to tamper with the sovereignty of nations and their citizens. This too is a serious crime. In a democracy citizens have the right to make good or bad choices and live with the consequences. As mentioned earlier when a reference to the RICO act was mentioned developed countries using the currency barrier for pecuniary advantage are in fact breaking the law; can and should be prosecuted for financial crimes not just against developing countries like Zambia, but (considering the immense human suffering they cause) against humanity itself. Organised crime uses this very same method to bring its victims in line using extortion. Since what is allowed to be applied on the international market is only the hard currency component and domestic currency must be exchanged for the hard currency prior to an international purchase, this means that though twice the work was done only half its value can demand imports. This limitation and exchange process is therefore not facilitating trade, but rather is simply no different from an exchange rate control which is contrary to free market policy. For this to be considered a free market or fair exchange both the hard currency earned (US dollars or Euros) and the Zambian Kwacha component should have been able to purchase an equal and specific quality and quantity of goods and services directly (without the need for exchange or by being unconditionally exchangeable) from the international market; however, the applied ideology of the international market's governments conveniently dropped or denied the value in the domestic currency when it demanded it be exchanged for hard currency the slave economy does not have, undermining principles of a free market system that they extol poorer countries to adhere to; basically a double standard. What fools or confuses people is that the domestic currency can still buy local goods and services, but this is absolutely not the point as the prejudice that prevails is that it cannot purchase directly from the international market and therefore in real terms has no value however by being able to demand goods and services locally governments and domestic populations are easily fooled into believing it has "real" value. What people do not realise is that in the greater economy or international economy the real value of that domestic currency has been reduced to zero thereby robbing it of the true worth and potential of its labour and productivity; as in, it cannot purchase directly internationally but can only do so indirectly through an exchange process that requires further work to to create exports that earn forex consequently forcing it to persistently export, i.e., carry twice the load or pay twice what imported goods are worth in real terms. Developed countries inadvertently use the currency exchange system to shyst and shake down less developed countries robbing them of income in broad daylight in a very polite and gentlemanly manner through a misapplication of free market policy they have trained them to blindly accept. It is a low blow to continue to shyst these sovereign nations the majority of which struggle with very real problems such as poverty, hunger, disease and joblessness..  

I hope this little sketch simplifies what I am trying to explain. If the first month the man worked and earned Kwacha for was enough to buy the groceries he wanted in the shop then what would the second month he would have been required to work been for? This additional unwarranted labour is a form servitude. The racial and other prejudices that necessitated the struggle for independence are obvious. they are easy for anyone to see and therefore swiftly actionable: an example of this kind of discrimination experienced by a man who eventually became Zambia's first President.
President Kaunda recalls an incident that took place when he was working as a teacher. At that time, Africans were not allowed to enter European-owned shops from the front door. They had to stand at a window at the side of the shop and ask for what they wanted. They had no chance to see or choose what they were buying. He recalls:
"I went inside and asked politely for a book. . . . Pointing to the door, [the proprietor] said viciously, 'Get out of here.' I said again, 'I am only asking for a book and I can get it nowhere else in town.' He said, 'You can stand there till Christmas and you'll never get a book from me.'"
SGI Quarterly
The discrimination created by the currency exchange barrier is not as easily actionable because the public simply don't see it. However, this simple sketch may help you understand why one country refusing to sell goods and services to another except through exchange using a hard currency is exploitative, a form of prejudice and a serious violation of human rights. The use of hard currencies such as the European Union's Euro and US Dollar to create servitude through the currency barrier is no different from the kind of prejudice Dr Kaunda describes in the above incident. The currency barrier on the other hand is more subtle requires you to open your eyes, but no less potent. It is inhumane, a violation of human rights and in reality equal to or far worse a form of prejudice than the political discrimination Zambians experienced during colonialism because it is invisible to the present day psyche. This is true yet its negative impact on the socio-economic life of Zambians today is far greater than the financial and psychological disadvantages created by the prejudices meted out against those who were similarly colonized around the world. This problem is why countries struggling to emerge from poverty and obscurity face an uphill battle. The struggle for economic liberation will require more from this generation, for the simple reason that you are unlikely to break chains that you cannot see and unlikely to struggle for economic liberation when you do not even know that you are captive. 


Zambians struggled for political independence, however this generation needs
to understand and rationalize what economic independence.means.


 The UNCHR needs to address this problem

Many nations have struggled for political freedom and gained it at independence. Having gained independence they soon realised that political emancipation loses its lustre and value without economic liberation. They consequently have struggled to build up their economies in order to feed, cloth, educate and nurture their people as well as build viable industries. They would  soon discover that without foreign exchange their domestic currencies and therefore their productivity and  economies would be worthless. Even today countries like Zambia are absolutely dependent on minerals like copper for their very existence and survival as without it the value of labour and productivity in the economy is reduced to nothing. The consequence of this is tremendous suffering of the Zambian people at every level with the poorest of the poor being the worst affected. That this suffering of humanity takes place before the eyes of governments and the accomplished men and women who guide them and claim to be champions of human rights, is a travesty. The servitude and slavery is self explanatory, what more evidence would any international body governing human rights require? This is a problem that must tabled before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. The UNCHR needs to address this problem if it is to remain a beacon of hope for humanity. The currency barrier in use today is a very serious violation of human rights and the suffering it creates amongst nations is right before the eyes of governments who can do little or nothing about it because they lack the economic strength to speak back to those to whom their people remain in economic servitude. Poor nations like Zambia around the world struggling to feed and raise their people, struggling to build their economies do not deserve this kind of prejudice, ill-treatment, slavery and servitude. Under this system for governing currencies the struggle of poor nations to ever gain economic independence is but a dream. For those successful emerging economies, tigers and nations that do achieve great economic success, the servitude does not end; under this currency barrier system they can never hope to be considered as nothing more than the slave who is most gifted at picking cotton on the national plantation.         

Currency exchange barriers are only allowed to continue to exist today because governments are simply not made aware and familiar with the negative impact on human welfare this system has. They simply do not associate the currency barrier with poverty, suffering and slow growth spread across the globe. There are also powerful interests that have placed private gain above national gain and the importance of a fair system that benefits all people. Under the present currency barrier system to tell countries that to improve their weak, failing or floundering economies they should work harder, be more productive and export more is no different from telling slaves on a plantation that they are slaves because they don't apply themselves enough when the truth is they are slaves because of the financial ideology and socio-economic system they have been made subject to. There is absolutely no difference between this condition and the man made currency exchange system governments around the world blindly submit their people and economies to today.

The United States is considered the most industrialised and the commercial capital of the world and yet it allows the existing currency exchange system, a draconianly anti-capitalist method of administering finance to stifle trade. Central Bank’s making currencies unconditionally tradable is pro-commerce, pro-trade, pro-business, everything the United States stands for and that has made it the wealthiest nation on earth and yet strangely it allows this anti-capitalist barrier to exist at great loss to itself; it allows its businesses and citizens to suffer immensely simply to satisfy a few money traders who have so many other areas and methods by which they can trade without debilitating the true value and worth of human effort, labour and employment. In my view currency barriers are un-American; while unconditionally exchangeable currencies that foster the well-being of humanity through accelerated business and trade are pro-American.  


Test the theory

In real terms the only economy in existence is the international economy. For instance, for the World Bank to say Zambia's economy was worth US$27.07 billion in 2014 is in fact a distortion of the truth. This is due to the fact that the real value of the Zambian economy can only be determined by the economy's existing hard currency, export earnings or what proportion of US$27.07 billion the country can convert into US dollars or Euro's, the rest is potential rather than real value. What the currency barrier does is reduce the real value of a nation's GDP to its exports. For instance the World Bank's stats may say Zambia's GDP is US$27.07 billion, however, if in 2014 Zambia's export earnings were only US$9 billion, then the real value of the Zambian economy in the international market is just US$9 billion the rest is merely "potential" value trapped like the "informal sector" in domestic currency value.  This may readily explain why natural resource rich countries like Zambia remain trapped in poverty; the wealth exists, but it only exists in potential not real terms due to the fact that domestic currencies cannot purchase directly from the international market and exports harbour a hidden cost at the point of currency exchange that makes them twice as dear in labour and productivity terms than they are actually worth. When central banks agree to unconditionally guarantee the value of the domestic currency then instantly the value of that country's productivity is normalized as the domestic currency becomes equal to international hard currency and the cost of purchasing imports in comparison to the productivity required to earn them is halved from "two fields" to "one field". For Zambia this would instantly add US$18.07 billion of real value to the economy's worth that the international financial system was previously unable to see. The impact of this in terms of stability, FDI and growth would be very significant. At present it means discrimination created by the currency barrier is hiding or locking away US$18.07 billion worth of Zambia's real value, simply because of prejudice in the international financial system. In essence the barrier through which US government and EU currencies operate is inadvertently contributing to the tremendous suffering and poverty levels observed in countries like Zambia. This runs contrary to the positive core values and human rights these institutions are known to support. For a country already struggling to make progress like Zambia this is a tremendous blow that is presently invisible to policy makers. The travesty and tragedy of this is the human suffering this problem is causing, as it not only creates and sustains poverty, but keeps millions of Zambians in economic servitude the origin of which even they may not be aware. 

I would humbly suggest to the US government and the Federal Reserve Bank to test this theory. Select an African country the United States feels is deserving. Approach the government and its central bank and offer to make that deserving country's currency unconditionally exchangeable with the US dollar. Guarantee internationally and publicly that for the next 20 years any imports made by that country will be backed and covered by the US dollar through a currency guarantee offered by United States government by way of its Federal Reserve.  Holding that county's currency anywhere in the world will be as good as holding the US dollar. This is not aid, its not relief, it is an offer of equality and equity currently missing from the world's financial system that effectively abolishes slavery of that country in financial terms. An importer in that country will no longer have to worry about whether there are sufficient dollars in the economy to import machinery, equipment, raw materials, finished goods, consumables, basically anything its citizens and businesses demand. Then sit back and watch over the next decade what impact this policy will have on poverty in that country, on economic growth, on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, trade, business, capital, productivity, governance, public sentiment about the future and especially what impact this decision will have on the rate of growth of imports from the United States to that country. If the impact of this experiment and study proves beneficial to the United States economy and the economy of that African country then a decision can be made to replicate it and extend it to more countries until it becomes a common and acceptable policy. My view is that this kind of equality and the good will it emits will generate more positive results than any kind of aid that can be offered to any nation.

The Zambian Kwacha

The Zambian Kwacha has hit an all time low as the currency depreciates from $1 to K6 up into $1 to K13. For now the reasons why the Kwacha is devaluating are not important. Whether the devaluing kwacha is being hit by low copper prices and other economic factors, or it is jittery investors pulling their dollars out of the economy due to uncertainty before the elections, or it is also being hit by the behaviour of buyers and sellers who are trying to hoard US dollars in order to protect their value or simply because inordinate amounts of kwacha are being printed to pay salaries, suppliers and to service local debt. As long as currencies remain in an oppressive system where they are not made unconditionally exchangeable central banks of “Slave” currencies like Zambia have to find ways of making a subsistence living so to speak.

What the Bank of Zambia can consider doing

Firstly let’s have a dose of realism. It is unrealistic not to expect price increases when a currency depreciates as it causes an inflationary spiral. Banning the dollar as a yardstick for measuring real value may be unrealistic. This is like government issuing a law that all rulers and measuring devices in the country be banned and henceforth people must guess or estimate distance. The hope is that people will underestimate distance, that is, think the kwacha is actually stronger against the dollar than it really is. The problem with this approach is that it can lead to dangerous structural problems in the financial economy and people are just not that gullible anymore. Gestapo-like threats such as this to intimidate sellers into pretending they can’t see the dollar gaining strength in the economy are not progressive; they do not cast the financial sector in good light.

The solution to the problem of inflation in Zambia is quite simple. If the current master currency exchange system is emitting radiation exposure to which hurts the economies of slave currencies like Zambia then these countries must wear protective clothing until such a time that central banks make currencies unconditionally exchangeable. Until this time any government with a slave currency must not allow its economy to have direct exposure to the master currency trading system. What is this protective clothing or barrier?

The source of exposure is the international market price of a master currency such as the US dollar. To protect themselves from this exposure countries with slave currencies should not allow their economies to be directly exposed to the international exchange rate. Instead they should create a domestic exchange rate that offers some relief from the effects of the master currency system. This exchange rate is not set by government, neither is it set by the quasi-government such as the central bank. It is by way of a statuary body or council set by a countrywide association of buyers and sellers, suppliers and consumers in the domestic economy with government through the central bank simply acting as a guarantor of last resort. It would be a requirement by PACRA that every registered business in Zambia be a member of this association and monthly contribute a determined amount that is used to run its secretariat. Informal business of all kinds throughout the country can also be encouraged to also join the association as members at an affordable monthly fee as they too are affected by and strongly influence price in the Zambian economy. It would probably be one of the most important independent financial bodies in Zambia for helping the central bank and government in general maintain the stability of the kwacha. The fact the domestic market exchange rate is set by buyers and sellers acting through this organisation to influence behaviour ensures that is set by the market and is therefore technically still a free market exchange rate and system. The difference is that rather than allowing the the slave whip or radiation from the master currency system to strike the slave currency, the slave currency through its own market exchange rate is able to resist simply by improving its trading position and using the gains from this improvement to shield itself from exposure to inflation and many other problems created by the master currency system when the relationship between currencies fails.

A domestic currency exchange rate determined by suppliers and consumers

What I would propose to the Bank of Zambia is to encourage behaviour change amongst buyers and sellers in the economy by gaming how the economy views foreign exchange. Foreign exchange is not just a value, it is system of measuring satisfaction. By focusing on satisfaction rather than the exchange rate the central bank (CB) can initiate behavioural change between banks, suppliers, buyers and sellers in how they view and value the Kwacha against other currencies. Firstly when the exchange rate rises in favour of the dollar as it has in Zambia the CB should encourage the market to view the prevailing exchange rate as a kind of opposing team against which they can take deliberate steps to win the “game”, I would refer to this as the reverse or inverse of speculation which hurts economies, lets call this approach counter-speculation.

Counter-speculation Introducing a “Domestic Market Exchange Rate”

Many businesses in Zambia are already implementing a Domestic Market Exchange Rate. How? They are not changing their prices directly in tandem with the US-dollar. When the exchange rate declines from US$1 – ZMK6.00 to US$1 – ZMK11.00 they instead price their products at US$1 – ZMK8.00. They are cushioning the impact of the exchange rate. What are they doing? In reality they are creating a “Domestic Market Exchange Rate”. By resisting price change they are in fact fighting back inflation and fighting for the Zambian economy. This behaviour or resistance to inflation which comes from the market itself is what government should encourage rather than the unreasonable demand that the dollar not be used as a measure or yard-stick of value, an approach that is impractical.

The CB should make an effort to officially recognise, encourage and reward the practice of not pricing precisely to the rate of inflation, but rather help  set up official structures to help businesses find ways of fighting inflation through price resistance. When inflation is experienced businesses selling goods and services should both agree that prices will go up, however, they agree to share the cost and impact of inflation. For instance if a currency loses value where the Kwacha falls from K6 to K10 to a dollar; it is agreed between banks, business and customers through BOZ that any increase that causes a change in price will be shared between them. Since the official Bank of Zambia international market exchange rate of the currency is US$1 to K10 for instance and the jump in depreciation from K6 to K10 is K4, businesses, banks and consumers agree to tackle this problem by splitting the burden of depreciation between them. That is businesses and consumers will take on a shared cost of K4 which divided by 2 is K2.  Instead of raising the exchange rate to the international exchange rate of $1 to K10, players within the economy (banks, business and consumers) agree to share the cost of the rise in inflation. To do this banks operate on the Domestic Market Exchange Rate they establish which reduces depreciation to $1 to K8. This creates an official trading rate for the Kwacha which is now $1 to K8 instead of $1 to K10. In other words, banks, business and consumers know that the international market rate for the Kwacha is $1 to K10, but because as a society or association they have agreed to SHARE the cost between buyer and seller or supplier and customer they deliberately rate the value at $1 to K8 creating a new national domestic market exchange rate. This internal position will immediately drop inflation in Zambia by 20%. Even if a business makes an international purchase of a product or raw materials at a rate of $1 to K10, all suppliers in Zambia by a countrywide official association supported by BOZ agree they will price their products at a rate of $1 to K8 and banks will agree to a buying rate for the dollar at $1 to K8 knowing the K2 is the accepted shared loss between suppliers and consumers. In other words the driving moral force of this stance supported by BOZ is that Zambian business and consumers will help each other prosper, they will share the burden and work together to push back inflation in order to restore normalcy. It is a rallying call that all patriotic business operating in Zambia and consumers can try to support.

In other words businesses and consumers are working together to fight back inflation. There are now officially two rates for the Kwacha. Both are set by the market. These rates are the inflationary international market rate of $1 to K10 driven by speculation or other undesirable forces and the official internal or domestic market exchange rate fighting back inflation of the Kwacha applied in all trade which is $1 to K8.

The international market exchange rate is now up against the domestic market exchange rate. Businesses, banks consumers and suppliers within the economy are working together competitively to push back the international market rate that is negatively affecting trade, earnings and the Zambian economy in general. It becomes a game of sorts where it is the players in the economy versus depreciation. The score is one goal to Zambian enterprise and zero to inflation with BOZ in the stands cheering them on.

There are innumerable methods such country-wide associations can use. For example, inflationary trends can be monitored. For instance, why is it that every year as the Zambian economy approaches the festive season the Kwacha begins to depreciate? Is it because people require foreign exchange during this period for bonuses, holidays, trips abroad, dividend payments abroad etc. If the cause is identified then what incentives can be provided for this forex to remain in the country rather than be exported. When the association recognises what specific economic behaviour business and consumers need to introduce to stem this inflation they seed it out to members countrywide.

There are also international businesses operating in Zambia. They're operations here have strict orders to price their goods and services according to the international exchange rate. This becomes the domestic policy. These local businesses will not defy direct orders from their parent companies. However, if a country-wide association of suppliers and consumers existed, it could send a delegation of experts and persuaders to the headquarters of these companies to speak to them at that level and explain the long term benefits of following the domestic exchange rate instead of the international exchange rate to them and gain the kind of buy in that allows the heads of local operations to participate by working with the rest of the business and consumers in the economy.

Managing a domestic market exchange Rate

A domestic market exchange rate is not set by the Bank of Zambia (BOZ). BOZ merely provides the officialdom and platform by which banks, suppliers, traders, manufacturers and consumers are able to by way of association officially meet together to set the domestic exchange rate by agreeing on how to share the cost and burden of inflation between them. This is the first line of defence against inflation and creates the first barrier to direct exposure to exchange rate volatility in Zambia or any economy for that matter. 

Technically a domestic exchange rate is set by the market since it is agreed to between buyers and sellers. It is not set by government or the Bank of Zambia. Therefore it is not a form of State control. In addition to this the rate is not artificial in the sense that both buyers and sellers are through association working together to pay directly for deflecting the heat from the volatile currency. They are not being forced to do this, they are doing this deliberately of their own free will. For instance a supplier of imported electrical appliances or steel knows that if he or she increases price by exactly the same percentage as the volatile Kwacha product sales will fall dramatically. Instead of increasing price in tandem with this volatility he or she absorbs some of the impact of inflation by using the domestic market exchange rate $1 to K8 instead of the international exchange rate $1 to K10 created by speculation. He takes on a burden of K2 while the consumer bears the burden of the other K2 which is added to the price of the product ($1 to K8) pulling back the inflation by 20%. This is the first defence that is agreed to by association of suppliers and consumers under the auspices of BOZ. Right now no such mechanism exists in Zambia as an official positive inspiration to business and consumers to work toward a resistance to depreciation.

Many suppliers already protect their consumers or clients in this way from sharp increases in inflation caused by not following the exchange rate exactly as it rises and falls, these are Zambia’s unsung heroes yet this resistance is currently not quantified by the central bank and it is not an official practice that is performed through association countrywide. If it is not recognised, not quantified and not official then in reality a business and consumer led drive against inflation is non existent and this positive behavioural trait is not shared with other suppliers and cannot be used as national or domestic market exchange rate to protect the economy from the intense rays or radiation from exposure to master currencies. If it is not shared then an opportunity is lost to encourage suppliers to do the same.

Other Tactics

By formally setting up a countrywide association consisting of business and consumers (the market) that works together to fight depreciation the first important step will have been taken in Zambia to protect its currency. Having fought back depreciation by 20% the association now operating officially with the encouragement of the CB looks at the remaining inflation and how to tackle it. Let’s say the preferred trading rate is $1 to K5. The domestic trading rate is now at $1 to K8. Independent business that do not sell specialised products are not tied to a single supplier and are therefore free to seek or source the best available price for the products they sell. The association can now do the research to help find diverse means and strategies for beating depreciation. For instance it can now ask all its members countrywide to submit lists of inputs and products they depend on forex to be able to import and to go back to their international suppliers to either negotiate lower prices or those who can opt to switch to suppliers of similar imported products at a cheaper price. The point is that, what often drives inflation is the currency barrier and demand for dollars by traders in order re-stock goods that are now more expensive to buy due to depreciation. Managing inflation is also about finding similar imported products that are for sale at a lower price or negotiating lower prices. The association can look at unspecialised or like imports and group businesses ordering exactly the same materials, equipment, inputs and products together then combine orders to move prices down using economies of scale. When products are bought in bulk rather than by individual suppliers price can often be negotiated downward. This tactic should shave some more points off inflation.

Conclusion

As a child I was quite fascinated with how engines work. I designed my first rotary internal combustion engine when I was fourteen years old, it was because I felt the crankshaft combustion cycle of piston engines is inherently inefficient and this was verified to be true. I would take my designs to class and work on them any chance I could. I would go to the school library to research as much as I could on the subject of internal combustion. When people would find me working on the technical drawings they would shake their heads. Some people were moved enough to visibly become upset with me when they asked what I was doing and I told them. They told me I was mad to think I could do something engineers at car manufacturing companies like BMW and Mercedes were doing and dismissed my illustrations as a crazy fantasy. For the most part I tried to ignore the criticism and negative attitude because I already knew that the majority of people, even those with impressive educations tend be cloistered by conventionalism and to have shallow IQs. Much later when a Professor of Engineering saw my designs, the methodology I had used and the illustrations he was impressed enough to call me to his office and ask me if I'd be interested in building a working prototype of the engine. I am still that person, my determination is not deterred.

Governments today, especially of poor countries,  need to be wary of the knowledge they take for granted in economics and finance. Know the game inside out. Don't get played, be a player. Do your own research, think out of the box, re-assess and re-analyse everything about finance you are given to understand according to its relevance to your situation. Simply because a distinguished university teaching a "slave"master's program says the slave collar around your neck is "bling" can mislead people into thinking shackles are jewelry. We should never forget that we are struggling for our very survival. Benevolence is an ideal but we do not yet exist in a benevolent world.  The reality is that there are a thousand and one ways an economy can resist inflation. However, until there is an official business and consumer led organisation created to do so, which can generate a domestic market exchange rate the CB will have to rely solely on open market operations such as flooding the market with hard currency. This may work, but it is costly in that it is very much like running on empty and driving around the city from station to station looking for gas. The economy will easily gobble up any and all foreign currency the central bank tries to offload on the market. However, by having business buy into a domestic market exchange rate, the resistance to inflation is created by increased efficiency, economies of scale and other economic approaches businesses and consumers may use to counter depreciation. To do this the CB is likely to need to facilitate the creation of an official, country-wide association business and consumers buy into, that allows them to cooperate in how they behave when faced with unwanted appreciation, inflation or deflation. After all, economics is not just about money, but about how business and consumers behave in an economy. Tapping into this behaviour through an official vehicle is probably the best way of ensuring there are sufficient tools to manage the kwacha in times of crisis for the long term.  
The role of finance in religion


Breaking chains: Zambia will succeed in the struggle for
economic emancipation. We are anointed to succeed.

I could go on and on trying to provide scholarly ways in which countries like Zambia can protect the erosion of the true value of their labour from inflation by setting up associations to protect the Kwacha and counter depreciation as I have just done. However, I can also give you a religious reason why central banks such as the US Federal Reserve should make agreements that allow currencies to be unconditionally exchangeable. The Bible makes a direct reference to financial slavery, which is a reference to the very currency exchange system in place today. It laments about this Master-Slave currency system in place today as follows:

16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: 17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Revelations 13:16-17

Many people may read this piece of scripture, but may never actually understand it. This is the direct translation of Angelic language into human speech therefore quite frankly when you read it, it may sound like gibberish. I have explained quite consistently that in the Bible when you find a reference to the beast [Satan, Lucifer, the devil etc] it is a direct reference to prejudice with cruel intent or outcomes. The mark is a trait, on the hand it is a reference to labour, the work place, employment and on the forehead it is a reference to how people think, what they believe and what influences their decisions in this space. Buying and selling is a reference to money or currency by which goods and services are acquired. What it quite simply says is: no person on earth today is free because the financial or currency system makes everyone a slave and the bondage in which it places humanity is Satanic (of the beast) as it is deeply and inherently prejudiced. It is a system where people cannot equally convert or exchange their labour for goods and services due to the inequality created by the currency barrier (discrimination as an obstacle to buying and selling), labour and the work space in every sphere of human existence is driven and tainted by prejudice. Such widespread inequality in the application of human labour can be nothing less than a direct reference to the fact that one currency is not unconditionally exchangeable for another.  Money or currencies when used by the financial system without prejudice or against discrimination represent what is good and it has sacred value. However, when it is used in the opposite manner with prejudice and to support discrimination it becomes evil or unholy. The present day inequality between currencies creates an unfair system where finance is used to reduce and subject human labour to slavery as a result of being deeply flawed by prejudice. This dehumanisation of mankind's labour is set apart in that it is quantifiable using a prejudiced [i.e. Satanic] system for measuring value; hence it has a number. Number being an attribute of money or reference to currency which has numbers or digits used to measure and define value. By now you will probably understand that the infamous value 666 [the number of his name] used in this specific context or sentence structure is simply a reference to the misuse of finance, money and currency that is used or exchanged in a manner that is prejudiced such that it causes human suffering. This suffering can assume many forms but can be readily identified in the currency exchange barrier if the time is taken to understand how currencies not being unconditionally exchangeable keeps entire nations trapped in poverty and unseen servitude. 666 used in this specific context is a direct reference to the "servitude of exchange" as a misuse of money to create inequality that leads to human suffering. Contrary to belief it does not refer to one person [the number of a man], rather this "man" is a reference to any person, any man or woman who misuses currency/money in this prejudiced or unequal way who consequently becomes like the devil [a man]. Revelation 13:18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.  Number in this verse is a reference to currency or money that is used to create an unequal or prejudiced system [of the beast]. The Bible explains that if you take the time to observe what's going on you can work out or see this inequality and prejudice: Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast i.e. [Let anyone who understands see or measure [count] how currency is used for prejudice]. Using money there is only one way to do this and this is to measure [count] one currency against another. For it is the number of a man i.e. [it is identified by how a person (any person - man or woman) uses currency]. And his number is Six hundred threescore and six i.e. [ and this person's (man or woman's) currency is exchanged over and over, almost endlessly - hence the Angel's repetition: 6-6-6 i.e. meaning (doing wrong : 6) over (6) and over (6) and over (6)]. Many people erroneously spend a lot of time trying to work out some numerical or mathematical system that will generate a name of this value as though it is a dense mystery. Three sixes is an expression that emphasises "to repeatedly do wrong" .i.e. over and over. The passage expresses that this pattern is how true evil is recognised. If anyone takes the time they can work out or recognise the pattern and identify the true nature of a person in that any person is defined by what they repeatedly do.  To end this evil stop the pattern of repeatedly doing what is wrong, and instead replace it with equality, what is just and let good become what is shared. Most people have misconceptions about what this Bible passage means or they misrepresent it as they cannot translate this passage of scripture correctly because they do not and cannot speak the language in which it was presented to John.    

How is it possible for every person on earth today small and great, rich and poor to exist in a system of servitude that it is thought ended with the slave trade - a mark in the hand and on the forehead? In other words how is it that in this modern day you can have entire sovereign nations bonded in slavery as is described in Revelation? It is quite simple to explain. When national currencies cannot directly demand goods and services from the international market, then to overcome this barrier they must first work to export goods and services in order to earn hard currency with which they can exchange local currency. This work done is no different from a slave picking cotton for free as it is purely for the purpose of gaining economic well-being by overcoming the currency exchange barrier; a fictitious man made barrier that need not exist. Without this barrier they would be free men and women exporting goods for their benefit, however, with this barrier in place nations, as it is with slaves, are made to produce these for free, for the benefit of another unbeknownst to themselves. How is it that they do this for free? A master currency can obtain the same goods and services slave currencies "pick cotton for", simply by purchasing them of the international market without doing any of the labour currencies facing barriers must perform. Many governments today have no knowledge of this servitude in which their people are caught up; lacking this insight or understanding they are like a child in the cotton picking fields of Virginia born into slavery; they are working the fields for foreign exchange, thinking this is how it has always been and always will be. What better slave is there to have, than a slave who believes he or she is a free person? When a human being works, his or her labour is a universal currency. It is sanctified. It is of God. Goods and services made and demanded represent human labour as does human ability; that labour cannot be eroded or rendered valueless simply because governments choose not to recognise it by using prejudice to set up currency exchange barriers that create a form of servitude that is completely hidden from the sight and minds of the masses as is the case today. It does not matter what currency represents the work people do, the work itself is the real value, hence that work in religious terms is sanctified. To say that this value does not exist by currencies not being unconditionally exchangeable, in religious terms, is unholy. It is a desecration of something sacred, the introduction of an unholy bias, no different from a serious abrogation of human rights which the Angel very eloquently explains to John in Revelation. The description is consequently quite accurate. This is the financial currency system with exchange barriers you live in today.

The United States Government & Congress have a key role in ending the human rights problem created by the currency exchange barrier

The founding father's of the United States understood this principal of equality and equity. This is why they placed the motto "In God We Trust" on the dollar bill; A Civil War declaration that the United States is no ordinary nation, it is a Nation of God moving away from slavery and injustice, under God's protection. The value of human labour is universal. Money should not discriminate. A dollars worth of hard work by anyone regardless of who they are in one State is a dollars worth of work in any State. A dollars worth of work in the United States is a dollars worth of work anywhere in the world and vice versa. This is the true value of the American currency and economy. As human beings this is the true emancipation from oppression, the true independence we strive for. Just as African nations fought for and gained independence, the United States did the same in the American Revolution. From Revolution to Civil War, the United States fore-bearers journeyed toward equality and justice. However, the present day exchange rate system no longer expresses or recognises this belief or these values. A dollars worth of work in Zambia firstly has no infallible value because Kwacha cannot demand goods and services on the international market, it faces the barrier of conversion. It is therefore rendered a slave currency. This barrier goes against the American values advocated by the founding fathers. It means a dollars worth of work by anyone in one place is no longer a dollars worth of work in any place that harkens back to the era when America was not free, but a colony and later the slave trade where an individual did not own his or her own labour. Even if they did it was not equal to any other persons labour because of the problem of prejudice. How do we know this? Depreciation caused by the currency barrier eroding the value of a currency erodes the value of labour re-introducing a fundamental problem the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War were fought to achieve: independence, freedom, equality, justice and the end of slavery. The final frontier and challenge, that of ending poverty and the suffering of humanity in the world yet remains to complete the legacy of the founding father's. The United States Government, Congress and the American People have the power and ability to carry through this legacy and fulfill the great purpose of its existence. This will require strong and purposeful leadership that understands the problem. These values can only be achieved when central banks agree to make their currencies unconditionally exchangeable, that is, unrestricted by barriers to conversion or exchange of one currency into another and unfettered access to international markets. At this point the value, purpose and belief associated with the use of money becomes aligned with God; as it establishes the meaning of "In God We Trust" consequently making the United States a global leader in bringing tolerance, freedom. peace, prosperity, equality into the world, not just as a political ideal but a economic reality established through the just, correct and purposeful use of the US dollar. As long as currencies do not remain unconditionally exchangeable thus fostering equality and equity the power of the US dollar and its government to change the world for the better is curtailed since policy and the founding purpose of the US dollar are no longer aligned.