Wednesday, 30 August 2017

The Search for Artificial Intelligence

Its interesting to read about the ongoing debate concerning artificial intelligence (AI) especially when there are strong views expressed by prominent people in the tech industry such as Mike Zuckerberg and Elon Musk. Musk went on to give warnings about the dangers of AI. Nevertheless, how far has humanity come in understanding what consciousness, self-awareness are and consequently what they would mean to artificial intelligence. A few days ago I pondered this question and came up with this analysis.  
Self-awareness is not a form of intelligence exclusive to human beings. Human beings are self-aware, but so too are a dog, a cat and cow. A creature does not have to have a highly evolved or developed brain to be self-aware. Self-awareness is a state of mind created by a method of internal processes. It should not be as difficult as it has been thus far for science to create artificial intelligence (AI) unless the fundamentals of how biological organisms process information has not been correctly interpreted.
If we imagine the primordial beginnings of biological intelligence as beginning with nothingness and that nothingness were a blank piece of paper then consciousness would only begin when a dot is drawn on a blank sheet. However, because the observer in sensory terms only knows nothingness the appearance of the dot will not be an appearance of a dot, but an alteration of the blank sheet of paper or nothingness. For instance, if the sun is nothingness (the beginning), since there is nothing by which to define the moon, then during an eclipse the sun will simply grow dimmer and dimmer of its own volition and this will be referred to as an eclipse of the sun by which the idea of a moon is assumed but never verified as there is no means in evolution at this early stage for knowing a moon exists absolutely. Only the sun exists, only the sun is absolute all else is relativistic to the sun therefore any new information is processed using variations in light alone. The observer is consequently not seeing that a dot has appeared on the paper, it does not know what a dot is. Rather it sees that the nothingness has become a little dimmer in a specific location. Technically there is no dot, only a specific change in the nothingness. In other words, the dot was not added to the paper, it did not appear; rather something was taken from the nothingness. 

Its important to understand this process in the evolution of intelligence in biology. It means the brain may not accumulate knowledge by addition, but by subtraction. It means the brain may not process information with 1s and 0s like a computer. It more likely processes information with 0s alone: a unitary system. This means every electrical shade of 0 is a very specific idea. Every variation of an idea (nuance) is stand alone. Each stand alone idea is mapped to a specific electrical frequency or charge. Every nuance in electrical charge broadcasting or moving between cells (transistors) represents a particle of thought. Since every tiny variation in frequency or charge represents an independent or very specific idea the closest analogy of the methodology and processing system would be to that of a musical symphony. Every change in charge or note struck conjures a very specific idea in the brain. Since every slight change in electrical charge represents a unique sound there is a very wide and complex variation in tones. If the specific charge and the idea it represents is mapped it is likely the brain could communicate directly and very precisely with the aid of a computer. Since we know that learning a language fluently requires a vocabulary of at least ten thousand words then scientists being able to map just ten thousand electrical charge nuances and the very specific ideas they represent would be able to communicate directly with the human brain. Ten thousand is a very small quantity of signals to map, which means communicating directly with the brain must be much easier than medical science may believe. Even a person in a coma with a functional brain would be able to communicate like a normal person furthermore it would be possible to contemplate the first telepathic forms of communication, that is, communication directly from one brain to another or from a brain to an electronic device. Electronically Assisted Telepathy (EAT) as a branch of human technology is probably not very far off. It would certainly be interesting to observe two or more people using their minds to communicate directly at the speed of thought.

Instead of a pattern of 0s and 1s to build a single idea as seen in a binary processing system, the brain uses ideas themselves in a unitary processing system. Intelligence is observed when ideas form patterns. A cross referencing process consisting of what each idea is not is used to turn these ideas or very finely tuned electrical charges that represent ideas into language. This process generates thought or consciousness and is what human beings inevitably call language. The cross-referencing process as a method for language in itself is likely to be fundamental to every brain and may eventually allow for the direct integration and communication of computers with biological brains using a universal platform. The problem that may arise is that each brain may have its own referencing system by which it assigns ideas to electrical charges. This charge can be isolated by using a specific idea as a stimulus for the brain then observing which charge, frequency or signal it uses for that specific idea. Once the signal is known triggering it must always yield the same idea or  result. A specific electrical charge in one brain that triggers the idea of a car may trigger a washing machine in another. Though cumbersome this may be a good thing as it means mass mind control through electronic means is a myth. Any message that is broadcast will trigger different cranial ideas in every individual. Each individual would have to submit their "mind map" before anyone can communicate with them; it is also likely these maps can be encrypted which entails that even if it is offered for electronically assisted communication by a user it can be designed to be only accessed with their permission. 

To create a universal platform computers would have to learn how to operate a unitary language (map what at least ten thousand ideas or electrical charge nuances in each individual brain means in order to learn its language and speak to the brain directly) as opposed to a binary language. This is very different from a binary system where at its baseline every object, idea or nuance is further represented by a pattern of 0s and 1s. At the baseline of a unitary system there is no such pattern, there is only the individual idea itself, but the ideas, represented by every nuance of 0, can be infinite in number. Many ideas group themselves to form patterns. The  generated patterns, when coherent, correspond with intelligence. This may mean that forming patterns using ideas is what we can call intelligence. It is synonymous with the patterns created by processing in computers, but it does not use the same baseline system. This difference may be crucial. It means that while computers exhaust huge amounts of processing power to generate patterns of 0s and 1s, just to construct an idea or object, the brain skips this process altogether and instead uses this processing power to generate intelligence or patterns of fully formed ideas. Cross referencing individual 0s leads to biological consciousness. When what objects and ideas "are not" is processed this effectively leads to self-awareness. Although the brain stores ideas the method by which it processes them is likely to be very unusual. It does not take stored ideas at face value the way a conventional computer processes data in its memory rather it cross references ideas, never directly using the idea it attempts to process to define itself. For instance when a cat is shown to a brain, the idea of a cat is stored in its memory, but this is not what will be triggered. The cross-reference system that creates self awareness will kick in. Everything other than the image of a cat is what is likely will instead be triggered and it might appear to researchers as though the brain is deliberately trying to resist being understood. The best method might be to look for the specific cell that does not respond or responds the least to the idea used as trigger. This may make it very complex or tricky to map a brain in order to facilitate direct communication with it and this may create challenges when it comes to mapping electrical charges in cells to determine which ideas they represent. However, it may lead to an entirely new field of medicine based on this method of communication.

A binary system of zero and one is unlikely to work in biology where one is “on” and zero is “off” because biology does not have an absolute off state, in that if 0 is living and 1 is dead, death is outside the sensory system of a biological entity and therefore not computable. This would advance the idea that instead of one and zero, on and off only changes in zero are used to process information. In terms of technology this would be like one transistor acting as the receiver being the first zero, while a second transistor acting as an amplifier is the second zero. Together they form a central processing unit (cpu). This cpu can do the work of thousands of cells and transistors. The change in transistor one (receiver) causes a change in transistor 2 (amplifier) and information is processed using this process. Although in this set up transistor one appears to behave like zero and transistor 2 like one, the major difference is that in the new system there is a huge elevation in nuance. In a processor a one can only be a one and zero a zero. In the new system there can be limitless variations of the intensity of charge between the receiver and the amplifier. In other words between 0 and 0 in this system the intensity can vary from 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04. The smaller the variations and faster the sensor can read them the bigger the processor and processing power of just one cell.
A computer or artificial processor that behaves like a human brain could be severely limited by using a processing system that consists of physical zeros and ones in a cpu. Conceptually, using the receiver and amplifier method for processing means the equivalent of just two transistors could have the processing power of all the millions of transistors crammed into a cpu. If there are only two cells in this “brain” and a movement of current from receiver to amplifier could act like a broadcast that any and all transistors could receive then cells could work together to manage information. Using this process every transistor would be involved in any and every action by a process of abstention and self-awareness would materialize.If, in a unitary cpu, just two cells or transistors can do the work of many using nuance and cells by communicating with one another can process information then it opens the way to understanding how insects and other tiny creatures can exhibit forms of intelligence. This may also explain how a child born with less than 2% of healthy brain tissue may still have the processing power to go on to live a relatively healthy life.
If there is only a zero and no one in how biological organisms process information, this unique quality may be key to what consciousness and self-awareness mean. The manner in which biological organisms process information is what creates intelligence and generates an ego or unique individual, as the complexity of the “brain” increases so too does the complexity of the person or animal. The method biological organisms generally use to create intelligence is like the process by which light works. White light contains all the colours of the spectrum. When it strikes an object the colour observed is the one reflected or scattered. In other words if all the other colours are absorbed and green is scattered then we observe an apple and say it is green. The process of intelligence required to analyse a green apple required all the colours of the spectrum to be absorbed to determine what it is; this becomes how all self-awareness is generated. The green apple is never actually identified absolutely, that is, there is no 1 in this processing method or system only a variations of 0. The algorithm for consciousness or self-awareness is therefore probably very simple in that it is a constant query that asks what any object or action is not i.e. the absence of 1 in the processing system; while that query goes on in a perpetual loop consciousness and self-awareness exists. In order to avoid error a brain never accepts anything as absolute: there is a zero but no one. Using this system the level of accuracy increases many times over. If there is a cup on your table it only remains a cup due to the fact that your brain is telling you it’s a cup a few thousand times a second. It can tell it’s a cup only by cross referencing what it isn’t a few thousand times per second. This ongoing loop and process generates consciousness and inevitably creates self-awareness when applied to how the brain relates to itself.
The approach in AI today is to predetermine the apple is green. The programmer pre-defines the colour and therefore cancels the thought process making it impossible to design an algorithm that is patently conscious and can become self-aware. To correct this problem what it is (green), has to be determined by what it is not (the remaining colours of the spectrum absorbed). If white light means every biological brain cell is the same then when a brain cell fires it is not identifying an object but a process. If a neuroscientist artificially stimulates a brain cell and it causes an arm to move then that cell does not know it’s an arm, but behaves like an arm cell. This cell moved the arm not because it knew to move the arm, but because by a process of elimination all the other cells in the brain excluded themselves from this reaction. It knew what to do by abstention, that is, by knowing what not to do. Similarly, every colour in the spectrum had to be excluded for the apple to be identified as green. If this is true, when a neuroscientist stimulates an area in the brain, it only responded firstly because the rest of the cells in the brain recognized their non-involvement in this action. What this would entail is that even if a machine shows neurons firing in one sector of the brain for this to be processed the rest of the brain had to take a position, therefore, despite there being billions of cells this method would suggest as far as they are concerned there is only one brain cell, i.e., a zero with no one. By using a system of receiver and amplifier brain cells or transistors would be able to network directly with one another using broadcasts to process information in groups or clusters. Consequently, this is not a binary system of processing information neither is it digital. It is more advanced than both these systems.
 In essence, where the apple is concerned, what is being observed is not necessarily green but the absence of every colour but green. Similarly, the brain begins to learn by knowing nothing in the beginning, then it starts to identify everything it encounters by a process of elimination what it’s not. As the brain grows it adds more and more cells to its network. These cells share the task of processing information. In order to identify an object the brain must constantly use nuance to differentiate what it observes from the full spectrum of white light, that is, everything it knows or all the other objects it has encountered.
When the brain sees an object, in order to identify it, like all the other colours absorbed except green, it must go through all its objects, vet them, and by a process of elimination identify what it observes. It can do this very quickly if cells work together to process information. To observe an object and make sense of it a biological brain is likely to have to constantly make thousands of calculations per second. This process is likely sped up by creating a natural algorithm or pattern of "what it’s not" that when in constant play establishes consciousness and self-awareness or "what it is" by default through a process of absolute subtraction. This process is what is referred to as consciousness. Using this method a single brain cell can multiply and like a baby can go from a brain with a blank slate at birth learn all the way to a PhD. When the brain applies this process of elimination to itself, it becomes self-aware. It becomes self-aware by constantly calculating what it is not. Through this process what it is, like the green apple, becomes reflected and self-awareness is realised. In other words a person only gains self-awareness by his or her consciousness knowing what it is not, as it can never be truly and objectively certain what it is. This approach of processing using variations of zero only would be like a knife that is persistently, constantly, tirelessly sharpening itself, which is a process when observed appears as intelligence.
This most likely explains why consciousness requires a significant amount of processing power and why brain cells can deliver it. To be able to consciously see or process 1 object would require thousands of references per second processing a catalogue of what it isn't that consequently generate what it is, a process that by default generates self-awareness and consciousness itself. Like Relativity Theory intelligence arises not out of objects observed in and of themselves but constant cross references seeking accuracy and therefore constantly poised for learning. Computers built on a binary system may have some advantages but the digital process of using 0s and 1s to process information is way too slow and far too primitive in comparison; they would have a very hard time keeping up with a extraordinarily fast"unitary" system where one cell or transistor can do the work of thousands composed only of a system using nuances of zero. It’s easy to store the idea of an apple on a computer and use very little memory and processing power in doing so. But for the human brain to know what an apple is, it does not have the luxury of directly inputting what it observes as it is. This is likely due to the fact that the object is never directly identified, except through a system of reference. This is in turn due to the fact that direct identification cannot take place without pre-existing knowledge. Biological organisms do not grow with the luxury of pre-existing knowledge and if an object is mistaken for another using this primitive process there may not exist a reliable method of correction. This flaw can lead to accidents and fatal errors for biological lifeforms. In other words the 0 and 1, or digital method of processing information may be highly accurate for saving, accessing and processing information but it is flawed in that it can easily yield false positives leading to dangerous mistakes based on improperly tested assumptions. It is easy to understand why nature would avoid using this as a learning system. Avoiding identifying anything encountered directly allows the brain to avoid catastrophic life threatening errors. Using and understanding this process means any logic based system, even a computer, can become self-aware by design rather than by processing power. By being able to constantly process what it is not, with a minimum degree of complexity, it will develop consciousness. This, by default, becomes a reference or means by which to define what it is consequently allowing what is essentially a computer or machine to become self aware. This procedure also allows creatures with much less brain power than human beings to be self-aware. A brain only knows what something is, by knowing what it isn't. The more ways it can cross reference and differentiate ideas or objects in this way, the more intelligent it becomes. This is why a more robust brain makes human beings more intelligent, but self awareness itself being based on a simple processing system with no absolutes (no ones) does not need a large brain mass. Since every brain observes objects from its own vantage point, and encounters experiences in situations unique to itself, this process of elimination through cross referencing that generates self-awareness is unique to the observer and this becomes what is observed as a personality. No two personalities can be exactly the same because no two people go through exactly the same experiences at the same time, consequently no two people have the same references to identify either themselves (self-awareness) or the brain processing the world they observe (consciousness). 
This explains why the brain is exceptionally effective but it also explains why it is so easy for the brain to become confused. Since it takes a constant stream of subconscious analysis for the brain to function precisely, anything that interrupts this process of elimination can make it difficult to stream all the cross references that allow the brain to identify definitively what it observes. Anything that interrupts this process, like a concussion, alcohol, drugs or disease can delay cognition by making it take longer to sift through every aspect of what is being observed to be sure what it isn't in order to identify what it is. This may be why sometimes, even if an object is known but the reference system or process of elimination fails a person can fail to identify it. A person with Alzheimer for instance may have every person they know, everything they have seen or experienced stored in the brain. They may fail to remember not because they don’t have the information in their brain, but due to the fact that the brain treats objects stored in memory with the same suspicion it treats physical objects. This may demonstrate that the confusion observed in boxers after a heavy punch creates a concussion that interrupts processing. Memory is not affected in the concussed boxer has not forgotten where he is who he is fighting and why he is in the ring, however, the processing method has been interrupted creating what might appear to be an inability to remember, count, recognize the referee and control motor functions. The failure to identify something may not have been caused by failing to remember it, but by the brain being suspicious of memory itself and failing to cross reference what it isn't since objects in memory itself will be over-ridden by the cross reference process as not being seen trustworthy. Memory does not help this process since, as a life preserving fail-safe,  the brain will treat objects saved mentally with the same disdain it does objects in the real world. It will likely have to cross reference anything stored as memory it needs to recall to understand what it retrieves from its own memory. This applies to anything the brain processes, be it moving objects, personality, motion, motor functions, emotions, anger, love, hate, affection and so on. In essence, in order to be self-aware the brain must study other people, nuance and personalities as it grows, cross reference them and through a process of elimination generate a state of what they are not (the ability to distinguish itself from other people) consequently by default identifying itself and this becomes part of its self-awareness observed as a personality. This makes consciousness a complex process built on a very simple system. It explains why mental illnesses such as dementia, multiple personality disorder, identity problems and so on can affect people relatively easily. If a person’s own unique personality and self-awareness is built on every personality the brain says they are not then any interruption of this accuracy enhancing and verification process can lead to varying degrees of identity and multiple personality disorders. Even amongst people considered relatively sane and well balanced, that balance is maintained by thousands of behaviours, personalities and nuances the brain is cross referencing by subtraction to recognize itself and become a self styled "self-consciousness" or personality. It may also point to a strong link between self-awareness and behaviour. An interruption to the referencing process by which a person becomes self aware can consequently lead to a noticeable change in behaviour. Consciousness takes the long way around to develop intelligence but it may explain why the brain is so robust and can sometimes unexpectedly recover from injury. It may also explain how few gifted  people can develop photographic memories or the strange ability to recall an entire book perfectly. This may simply be a quirk in how their brain functions in that it finds a way of eluding the standard cross-referencing process to accesses memory directly; the more primitive way a computer retrieves stored data. However, in so doing they are likely using a method the brain does not approve of.
If this holds true, the brain is a very, very busy place. Even when a person is alone sitting in a room relaxing, closes their eyes or falls asleep the brain will be generating thousands of queries per second scanning every object in the room and mind against itself to sustain the consciousness of a person and by using a process of elimination identify everything there inadvertently generating and managing its own self-awareness.

This is likely why the human mind finds it difficult to answer the existential question: what am I? It encounters difficulty answering this question because its conscious existence and self-awareness is generated by subtraction not direct cognition. In essence it does not know what it is, definitively because it basically only knows definitively what it is not. Consequently, it’s easy to give computers hard drives and sensors and programme them to identify what objects are: this is basic cognition: on/off, yes/no, 0 and 1 etc. If a computer with facial recognition identifies people as they enter the room it will quickly map characteristics with those stored on its hard drive, find the closest matches and use this procedure to identify the person. Similarly a robot moving through a room or self driving car navigating through streets will analyse its surroundings and objects using direct cognition to find their way around. However, the brain may not allow itself the luxury of assumption, i.e. that the faces in memory or the objects it observes are accurate. Even if a person stored in memory enters the room it will identify the person by going through all the faces the person couldn’t be and by process of elimination identify a face. A cell is likely born having no spatial information. It must find itself and move by cross referencing its environment. Therefore, biological brains or minds may process space differently from computers in that they avoid an absolute origin or starting point and instead use objects and the environment to cross-reference where they are, are supposed to be or might be. When applied to motor functions this allows biological organisms to have very highly refined and accurate movement. Computers and robots on the other hand have the luxury of pre-cognition which allows users to initially program them to predetermine where they are and use sensors which constantly self reference using a predetermined origin that is applied when calculating where they are in relation to other objects. This may have some advantages, but it is likely, in many ways, to be inferior to the method observed in nature. In other words in facial recognition it may use consciousness to identify the person not pre-recognition, it does not rely on memory alone, but relies on cross references to recognize a person. The user or progammer (zero) provides the basic information (one) the computer uses from its memory to define objects. This is straight forward. However, the brain does not always have the luxury of a memory (one) . It must initially programme itself (0); this ability to learn is referred to as intelligence and consists of variations of zero (the programmer) with no one (no pre-existing information). With very complex programming and hardware a computer can be made to acquire a certain degree of intelligence dependent on a combination of memory and algorithms. However, nature abandoned this method because it can prove unreliable and lead to fatal errors in judgement in biological entities if an object, memory or action is misidentified, incorrectly processed or misinterpreted. Its solution may therefore be to avoid identify anything through cognitive approaches or digitization, that is, through an object or action in and of itself, but by a unitary system using references to what it is not, should not do or be. It does this spatially and even in regards to itself, and by subtraction inadvertently becomes self-aware. If this is true it would explain why the brain seems to be constantly in conversation with itself. When computer programmers understand this process they will see that building even simple computers that are self-aware, can learn and are artificially intelligent is actually not that difficult.

Insights into the language used by the brain...

For years scientists have been trying to unlock the mysteries of the brain. A very significant key to the puzzle that unlocks this mystery is the language the brain uses to speak to itself. Earlier I noted that this language must be musical in nature and alluded to a symphony of some sort. However, it may not be the kind of symphony played by a philharmonic orchestra. In this regard I would direct researchers in this area to snoring. Study the frequencies, vibrations and every aspect of snoring and how brain waves respond to these. When we are awake snoring is the most annoying and irritating sound to hear. On a good day I can belt out a few notes myself. Nevertheless, I have been able to personally witness something altogether astonishing about the impact of the noises produced by snoring on the brain. How? By being able to remain fully conscious, self aware and thirdly in an elevated state of consciousness common in meditation but that has occurred whilst in a state of deep sleep. This is something most people will never experience.

In this lucid state you can actually observe an incredibly deep communication between snoring sounds and the brain. What the vibrations from snoring are doing is enabling the brain to enter and hold a specific elevated state of consciousness. It is like an aid or assist induced in the physical body and being manipulated by the brain. The key to the language and how the brain communicates with itself may be in an over looked activity, namely snoring. It means absolutely nothing when you are awake, but it is the language of the angels to the brain when you are no longer conscious. This may sound unusual, nevertheless it is worth noting that snoring is caused by air moving soft tissue in the palate during obstructed breathing. This soft tissue appears to be situated directly beside or very close to the reticular activating system that controls rem sleep whose circuits run from the brain stem through the thalamus to the cortex. In fact physiologically, the reticular activating system can be described as appearing to descend from out of the brain to reach toward the soft tissue of the palate. Medical science once viewed tonsils a vestigial organ. Tonsils increase the amount of soft fleshy tissue in the area close to the recitular activating system. In fact tonsils seem perfectly designed to amplify the noise and vibration of snoring as well as to provide a means of obstructing beathing to enhance sleep apnea.  It is not just the sound of snoring itself, but the deep vibrations emerging from the soft tissue that affects this area of the brain. Call it what you may, but it is an intriguing confluence of two biological organs. Snoring therefore, as unusual as it may at first seem, may represent the identification of a highly evolved organ or instrument used by the brain as an auditory or vibrational means with which to communicate with itself and control states of consciousness during sleep. It is also possible that everyone snores inaudibly during some point in their sleep, but sufficiently loud enough for the brain to use these sounds. If this observation is true it may provide keys for creating the first formal auditory system and mechanism for facilitating direct communication with the brain. This is an area for medical science to explore.

It is also interesting to note some similarities between the stochastic vibrating sound in snoring and the purring sound made by cats. Think of those noisy old modems communicating in machine code, snoring sounds seem to have a similar relationship with the brain. Should specific snoring sounds and vibrations repeatedly induce specific thought responses from the brain then mapping these may provide the first auditory road map to direct communication with the brain.There may be more to all this, but snoring to people awake is just an irritating noise; its true value may not be accessible in the normal conscious state where it means absolutely nothing.

The unusually close proximity of the Soft Palate and the Reticular Activating
System of the brain may not be a coincidence. The sounds and vibrations produced
by the soft tissue appear to be made use of by the brain as a means of communication.

The second interesting physical phenomenon that has a significant impact on the brain is sleep apnea.  This is where the body while asleep enters a state where it stops breathing cutting off oxygen to the brain. Again this seems like a very irritating and life threatening problem some people go through. However, sleep apnea, like snoring may not be fully understood. While snoring allows the brain to enter and hold a new state of consciousness what I have observed is that sleep apnea pushes the brain into a disembodied state of consciousness where it appears to completely separate itself from the physical body. It also may not be a coincidence that tonsils play a part in both snoring and airway restriction that causes or induces sleep apnea and working with the reticular activating system may form a complex mechanism the brain (the domain) can use for communication and regulating states of consciousness while a host (tether) is in deep sleep. Sleep apnea may only last several seconds when it is recorded in a lab at a sleep clinic but the seconds can translate into hours when the brain elevates itself into a higher state of consciousness. Not only this, sleep apnea can occur in cycles where it is repeated over and over again through the night. The deprivation of oxygen caused by sleep apnea is not a random occurrence. It is a deliberate physiological condition induced by the brain in the physical body for the brain to have what can only be described as an altered consciousness and undisturbed out of body experience. Believe it or not controlled breathing as a means of affecting states of consciousness or awareness is not new. In yoga this ancient practice is a science called Pranayama, you can look it up. The question remains why would the brain begin to apply these breathing techniques during sleep? These workings of the human body are currently unknown to modern medical science and require further inquiry.

It sounds like nothing more than mundane snoring, but these vibrations
are having a profound affect on the brain during sleep. What exactly is the brain 
communicating in these sounds. The amount of information being processed
and states of consciousness being lucidly and intelligently manipulated by the active brain using
these sounds may one day astound scientists and they may hold the key to unlocking 
direct communication with the brain. [Playing back identical recordings like this to 
groups in deep sleep, asking them to recall their dreams and comparing these against 
the waveform could provide some interesting insights that may help in the decoding process.]

Any sleep scientist who witnesses rapid eye movement during rem sleep when a person is not truly self aware cannot help but be alarmed by the intensity of this activity and contemplate the potential existence of a duality in human consciousness which may correspond with the existence of two essentially separate entities existing in one physiology co-existing through a previously unexplored symbiosis where one, though hidden, is dominant over the other; a domain and a tether. The tether from birth develops a personality that learns to function within the norms created by society. Its behaviour and sense of morality is rationalized within these traditions and restrictions. The domain on the other hand is more or less unfettered and develops its own sense of morality. It emerges within its own consciousness and encompasses the subconscious deeply into regions the tether has no access. The domain is able to live out its life in a god-like mental space with few restrictions. The personality it inevitably forms is therefore unpredictable. Though the tether has no knowledge of the existence of the domain, it is likely the domain observes, hears,experiences and reviews everything the tether goes through in so doing organizes these memories appropriately in the brain. It sees thought, motive and action; truth and lies, honesty and deceit, good and evil: there is nothing the tether is likely to be able to conceal from the domain it inhabits. Though the domain, at present may exist unseen outside the knowledge of the tether, it has unfettered access and being privy to everything the tether thinks and does is likely to form and gain some kind of moral judgement over it.

As human beings we tend to assume that the brain comes into existence when we are born and that it is ours from then onwards until we die. However, we forget that the brain existed before us, and that it is thousands and thousands of years old. In fact we do not precisely know its origins, if it evolved or was created. This is a fundamental difference between AI and human beings. Human beings create AI in all its complexity within the limits of our technology but we do not precisely know the roots of our own creation or the limits therein. The brain enjoys two scientifically verifiable conditions. It enjoys activity whilst awake and from what we can garner from rem activity it is even more active when we are asleep. Logically, if we break down the two conditions to determine a precise preference, we have to ask the difficult question: where is the brains true reality? It does not matter if one life occurs purely within the mind since brain would control reality itself. Would the brain in the first instance prefer to exist in a world where it is significantly limited, where it can be injured and physically harmed, where it is subject to physical laws such as ageing, gravity, time, space, place, sickness and so on? Or would it prefer to live in a world were it is free, has no limitations to what it can do or where it can go, cannot be injured, does not grow weary, is eternally youthful and not subject to time and space? Using reason which of these two worlds would it prefer to base its universal reality? Logic indicates its universal reality would likely be based in the more desirable second instance of rem activity. But if this were true then a paradigm shift occurs in our understanding of human anthropology. It entails that the entire horizon of human existence and civilization, what human beings wake up to do every day is fundamentally to nourish the physical brain, keep it safe, feed it, temporarily take care of its physical needs so that it can enter its true, wider and more unfettered existence when the physical body rests and enters sleep. It would entail that when a human being wakes up he or she is essentially in nothing more than a "foraging state" or a deliberately limited state of consciousness restricted, tasked with and tailored to foraging (1%), where it is spared the full knowledge, life, society and experience of the whole brain (the remaining 99%) in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the tiresome and tedious foraging process. By allowing the tether to believe it forages exclusively for itself, whilst it in fact does this for the domain, the brain indefinitely avoids a conflict arising between the two realities or states of consciousness and is able to dwell unhindered in the one it prefers. This reality may re-define the purpose of human existence.

The real possibility of anthropological event horizon...

It is also possible to infer that the personality that wakes up every morning from sleep (the tether) may be completely different from the personality that is the brain itself ( the domain). Their life experiences and the very mechanism that operates their reality are quite different. The tether is oriented to simply fend for the brain and all its attributes may be accommodated to this end. If this analysis holds any truth then what is the relationship between the brain and the tether? Does it view the tether and itself as the same person, as equals at least or does it see the tether as being beneath it? Does this relationship between the domain and tether vary from person to person? It should also not be assumed that the attitude of the brain to the tether is a benevolent one as the relationship between the domain and the tether could be similar to that of master and a pet, or a pilot and a drone. It is also possible that the domain may refuse to recognize that the tether is its equal or that it is an extension of itself and in the worst case scenario may merely see the tether as a lesser being, something beneath it that it will not bow down to. Worst of all it may see it as a slave of sorts that tends to its needs during the cycle when the individual (tether) is awake. What will happen if and when modern medicine is able to lift the veil that separates the domain from the tether and human beings almost immediately gain the full scope of their memories. This will include those of the domain and consequently, a person's understanding of his or her full nature by gaining an entire life, history, and existence they did not know they had. This would be nothing less than an anthropological event horizon for human beings. The fact that the tether goes about its business daily thinking it acts in its own interest whilst in fact this behaviour is merely a tool or a function of the domain by which its biological health is catered to may encourage the domain to view the tether as a lesser being.Though scientists may argue that the brain spends more time awake than it does asleep the nature of time in these two states may differ, for example, if an hour of sleep is equivalent to twelve hours of being awake then this difference alters the balance of value between the two physiological states.

Nevertheless, it may be that if humanity were to discover that the physical world is not its true reality it may either lose its sense of a purpose for living or do everything in its power to enter the 2nd instance where it is truly alive. However, it cannot do this without risking abolishing the very existence of the 2nd instance since its purpose, which is to sustain and nourish the physical brain in the first instance might be jeopardized. This would explain why the brain prevents absolutely any substantive knowledge of the brain's true activity during sleep. If this is true then human reality is nothing compared to what it is in its entirety or its true form. It would mean that human beings on waking to a mundane existence in the wakeful state of the physical world remain in a un-resurrected condition in which they know probably less than 1% of their scientifically true identity, that is, their identity in its entirety. Furthermore, what is different about all this is that medical science may be able to find sufficient evidence to comprehensively prove this and actually achieve it.

We assume that during sleep the physical brain is trapped in its own thoughts and incapable of communication outside itself. However, sleep apnea seems to indicate an attempt by the brain to induce and perpetuate what in medical circles is commonly referred to as a "near death experience" or NDE, a state known to be and described by people who wake from it as an out of body afterlife experience, state or condition. In medical science NDEs are usually a one off experience. They can occur on the operating table in a theater where the patient is pronounced dead but doctors manage to somehow resuscitate or resurrect them. Some patience return with descriptions of what they experienced when they were dead; which is predominantly an out of body experience and afterlife. An NDE is usually an unintentional one off of experience, where even though death is pronounced by doctors some brain function may persist allowing the brain to enter a state of consciousness it would otherwise be unable to enter. Sleep apnea appears to be an attempt to regulate oxygen flow to the brain such that persistent controlled oxygen restriction triggers a carefully controlled NDE, something unthinkable. If this is indeed done so that the brain can safely cross from life to afterlife conditions during sleep it raises many new questions.

What is odd about snoring and sleep apnea is that they are not being induced lucidly by the individual, this is clear in that snoring to people awake is nothing but an irritating noise, while observing the repeated stoppage of breathing induced during sleep apnea that seems to be an attempt to push the body to the brink of death is nothing less than frightening. Both seem undesirable because science has no clue that the brain, as a living and sentient organ, may be deliberately inducing these physiological conditions in the physical body to manipulate its own consciousness. Why and how is it deliberately doing this? Where does it want to go by inducing altered states? If the person woke up with little or no recollection of what occurred during this period when the brain biologically induced afterlife conditions does it mean nothing happened, or does it mean a person is simply unable to recall or recover the memory of what happened? This needs further research by sleep clinics and neuroscience that thus far assume snoring and sleep apnea are merely a type of infirmity for which a cure needs to be found.

When a person has fallen asleep the brain seems able to engage a kind of "launch protocol" and is able to manipulate not only the physical body but the brain itself by depriving it of oxygen in order to deliberately move the mind to an alternate state of awareness. This is truly fascinating. For the most part the person going through these physiological changes while asleep will wake up with absolutely no recollection of what their own mind did to their body, where it went or what it did during this physiologically self induced elevation of consciousness where it was self aware. Scientists need to study these physical phenomena more closely as at present they may be the only tangible evidence of a physical means for finding a method for a sentient direct communication with the brain.

Paradigm Shift: As human beings what we think we are (1% of consciousness) Vs 
what we really are and look like riding in the cranium (the remaining 99% of consciousness). 

If the entire paradigm of our existence, the modern world and human civilization is built from basically foraging for the brain it may inspire deeper reflection. We tend to think of ourselves as the center of our being and the brain as merely an extension of ourselves. But what if the opposite is true and the biological brain is the center of existence and we are merely a useful appendage on its periphery? There may be a whole lot more to the human psyche than that which is observed when human beings are awake. When they are awake it seems the brain is "forced" to operate within the lucid state operating on possibly as little 1% of the host's (the brain's) full array of consciousness. Why? Because human beings don't require more than 1% of the brains array of intelligence to forage, that is, implement activities that will keep the brain safe and fed. It sounds uncomfortable, but it may become necessary to begin to see the brain itself, as it resides all wrinkly and cocooned in the cranium or "cockpit", as the "pilot"or  whole person while the person that emerges from sleep every morning to go to work or tidy the house is merely nothing more than an insignificant tentacle of that whole person deliberately confined by the brain to a limited world and reality so it can effectively do its job. Human awareness when awake may be designed to believe it has independence. We go about our day to day activity autonomously and take pride in freedom of choice. But what if this freedom exists simply because it is expedient to the brain and a hassle free method of gathering resources and nutrients for the brain, aka the pilot, deploying autopilot? If there were any truth to this at all it could lead to a Galileo-like event where human life and social existence is in fact not the center but the less important periphery of a much wider and far greater existence.It is likely the truth can only be inevitably determined through direct communication with the brain and how it will chose to respond to discovery. It may be naive for what is nothing more than a nutrient gatherer and curator for the brain to assume while awake it is the whole person, when it is nothing more than a hand, a thumb or a complex limb that is semi-autonomous, rather "shallow" and "stupid". It is maintained in a confined reality by the brain and allowed to believe its own delusions to serve the brains purpose. Lets refer to this being as the ego. [O.k I admit I'm chuckling right now at how amusing this all sounds].

The reality is human beings spend 1/3 of their lives asleep often with brain activity equal to or greater than when awake while science remains baffled about the true nature of sleep itself. The same way that while we are awake snoring is nothing but annoying and irritating it seems humanity knows very little about its own mind. What will be the outcome when science finally discovers and fully understands sleep and the greater reality that is the brain and is able to merge the two. None the less, my assumption is that the brain is already designed to encounter this eventuality, event horizon,  "awakening" or Resurrection, call it what you will. It will not allow two separate personalities to inhabit the same mind and the human life being so insignificant and yet overwhelmed by its own ego or self importance would not accept this paradigm shift to the periphery, therefore it will be flooded with memories formerly concealed of who its fuller personality is. The ego is likely to be rapidly absorbed completely into the whole mind and be made to assume it becomes the host or "pilot" and will be made to believe they have always been one and the same thereby nullifying any conflict between the two states of existence allowing them to merge into a new singular  consciousness: the anthropological event horizon.

The potential for two separate worlds and existences that are co-dependent to live within one biological mind is intriguing. The brain, caught in the act of using the body as an aid, the reticular activating system manipulating human physiology through vibrations induced in the soft tissue of the palate the way you would use your laptop by pounding at the keys, so to speak, sounds very much like science fiction. The fact that this manipulation of human biology may be taking place while a person is unconscious due to sleep is quite odd and needs further study. I see a breakthrough in a new area of science and a PhD in there somewhere for researchers curious enough to study this more closely.

Will artificial intelligence be good or bad for mankind....

As for whether artificial intelligence will be good or bad for humanity will depend almost entirely on how its is managed. In a nut shell if AI arises purely out of processing power which is the current trend it may lead to highly intelligent binary computers capable of mimicking self awareness. However, Elon Musk may be right in being wary of these types of AI as they will be highly intelligent and yet have a shaky sanity threshold. They would most likely be inherently eccentric in that they would be able to blend in with human beings using intelligence but a form of reasoning that may be prone to incorrect analysis, faulty conclusions. They could easily malfunction as a result of using an inappropriate processing system. As the world now begins the transition from gas driven automobiles to electric cars binary forms of AI though limited will still play a very important role in the advancement of technology.  If AI arises out of a more advanced unitary processing system built on a cross-referencing process then Mark Zuckerburg is right. These computers will have a much higher sanity threshold. They will be very reliable, can be applied to any industry and be extremely useful to humanity. Their behaviour will be almost indistinguishable from a human being, dog, cat or any natural creature depending on their purpose and the level of intelligence allocated to them to serve that purpose. In some cases their stability and sanity may even be so reliable that it can be used to help human beings with psychological and other problems. They would be self-aware, learn and understand their use to society depending on what they are, for example, an elevator, car, mobile phone or android. They would be able to self diagnose not just their physical state, but also their mental state and submit themselves for repair should they sense they are functioning outside certain parameters. In this sense their levels of sentience or potential for sanity would be greater and more reliable than that of a human being making them beneficial to human society and culture. It would also probably be easier to test and correct them randomly for malfunctions. It is unlikely they would be a threat, quite the opposite, they would be a useful companion to humanity and would be adopted into human society, industry and the economy quite seamlessly with their main utility value being to improve quality of life for human beings. I would be inclined to believe that if human civilizations continued to improve and refine robots and artificial intelligence indefinitely  so as to arrive at the most appropriate social AI they would find themselves engineering biological tissue and find themselves back where they began in that what they would inevitably recreate is type of human being.

The economy and AI

One of the biggest concerns is that AIs will take over human jobs, create unemployment and thereby increase income inequality. This is an area of economics I have studied extensively. The negative problems associated with AI will only occur if economics itself does not evolve. Since business and economics are my area of specialization and professional expertise its easy to see that everything is already in place with which to wipe out poverty and the under performance of economies. The idea that in future there will be poor nations and rich nations, or immigrants rushing to live in richer countries we see at present is a serious error. It is more likely that governments trying to enhance population size will beg reluctant people to migrate. They will not want to migrate because they already enjoy a very high standard of living where they are. So if governments want to grow their populations through migration in order to enhance their economies, now is the time to accept as many migrants and refugees as is possible, because in future they will be an asset governments cannot get their hands on even through incentives and relaxed immigration laws.

In future business will be more likely to succeed than fail. They will grow from strength to strength especially if they understand what the market wants. There will only be variations of extremely wealthy nations with presently unheard of per capita incomes. I have absolutely no worries about poverty. It will end. Governments today can wipe out unemployment even in the poorest nations. I have already developed and tested an economic model, process and financial system by which to do this so its more than possible. The process for eliminating poverty is complex only due to many fundamental misconceptions about how economies work. Most of the mundane problems humanity faces as a result of scarcity will not last. When these misconceptions are corrected the procedure itself is quite simple. Consequently, in my personal view poverty and underdevelopment are not a huge concern. The solutions already exist. Nevertheless everything has its appointed time and its just a matter of when the appropriate time for these problems to be eliminated arrives.

What I have found is that the most advanced economic system applied by governments the world over today is quite primitive. In future there will be better more effective economic models.  Believe it or not there is an even more aggressive economic model than capitalism. In the book the Greater Poverty and Wealth of Nations I refer to this model as a Superconsumption model. In the most advanced stage of this economic model the only real "work" human beings do is to consume goods and services; consumption becomes a chore, a job just like accountancy, engineering, teaching and so on. As consumers work, that is,  pick goods and services they desire most off the shelf they are paid something equivalent to the value of what they consume, i.e., their choice becomes essentially more powerful than money since it determines how wealth for industrialisation is allocated. Businesses then depend on how consumers choose goods and services for their survival as affordability is no longer a barrier for the majority of purchases.

At a stage when AI can handle any job human beings can do, any form of employment human beings don't want to do will be taken over by AI, but because human beings no longer need conventional jobs to live happily and comfortably (they can get paid simply by consuming) the AIs taking over work have little negative impact on human socio-economic life. Human beings will most likely become more heavily involved in religion, education, research and development, entertainment, the creative arts which are all considered a part of creative expression which become the highest form of human endeavor in any field. In the past before you could acquire goods and services you needed to generate money through labour. In a Superconsumption model money is no longer a major barrier to consumption.

Piracy will be an important indicator of the need to advance Economic Models

As technology evolves production of goods and services, even those considered custom or exclusive, will become common place leading to patent, copyright and trademark problems. This can be observed in the music, movie and software industry where ease of reproduction facilitates piracy. This is due to the fact that the economic model is failing to keep pace with advances in industry. This ofcourse does not in the present day apply to all goods and services, but specific goods and services that have become prone to easy replication. Music, movies, software and other easily replicated products should ideally be paid globally, purely by choice alone and should by now have already evolved from a Capitalist model to a Supersonsumption model to the benefit of the global market as well as the businesses and individuals in these industries. Consequently governments need to begin to advance the model by which they are sold.

It is absolutely just a matter of time before even complex goods such as a Tesla Model X, Mercedes Benz Maybach or even those considered customized or exclusive and only for those extremely wealthy such as a Bugatti Chiron, Ferrari,  Koenigseg CCR, Rolls Roys Wraith, Hennessy Venom GT are being 3D printed in a day in people's back yards and of a production quality so high it is equal if not better than the rightful manufacturer. If you thought something like an engine couldn't be printed due the metallurgy required, in the news its been recently revealed that HRL Laboratories has made a breakthrough in metallurgy with the announcement that researchers at the famous facility have developed a technique for successfully 3D printing high-strength aluminum alloys. So think again. Think further and wider. Its just a matter of time before 3D printers able to replicate meals (from the firstto the last molecule) found at popular franchises or restaurant chains will start to appear on household kitchen counter tops,  a matter of time before instead of buying perfume or clothing from Dolce and Gabana, Ralph Lauren, Chanel, Burberry, Prada and so on, people may simply begin to 3D print them molecule by molecule with quality equal or better than the original. With the molecular structure of a single bottle of Goût de Diamants, Taste of Diamonds, mapped a 3D printer will with utmost ease go on to print millions of exact copies per month of the beverage to the point of perfection with tweaks that improve aftertaste. At this point a middle income family may be enjoying beverages and foods hardly anyone can afford today.

Call the method what you like, but technically scientists are already 3D printing beef and calling it "cultured meat". Only a few decades ago had you predicted the possibility of people eating a hamburger with a patty made from meat grown in a lab we would have labelled such thoughts mentally ill bordering on insane. And yet what may have been considered impossible is today called "cultured meat" which can be considered nothing less than a form of 3D printed meat. On August 3rd 2013 the worlds first lab grown burger was was cooked and eaten at a news conference in London by scientists from Maastricht University led by a professor named Mark Post. There are now rumours of a US$300m deal for China to buy lab grown meat from Israel, and that iconic entrepreneurs who have made their huge fortunes form thinking ahead of the curve like Richard Branson and Bill Gates are investing in it. At this stage, considering all the facets of meat consumption: from whether it is moral to grow and kill animals for human consumption, the impact on the environment and the sheer complexity of inputs required in rearing animals; humanity has no choice but to entertain the idea that in future all forms of meat will be lab grown and conventional animal farming that has been a facet of human society since time immemorial at some time in the the future will essentially come to end. The power of 3D printing as an industry and industrial method in and of itself cannot be underestimated. It would be both incompetent and insane for any economic planner not to widely assess the potential impact this revolutionary technology may have on employment, industry, finance and economics in general.

From a 3D printed tomato to 3D printed biological limbs for amputees or replacement organs for patients, interestingly it now seems to underestimate what this industry can eventually do is the more likely indication of a lack of foresight. Whats to stop this industry from eventually printing caviar. Eventually, even the most expensive foods money can buy will be in every household that wants them. What will become the new frontier is the design by which old and new foods are brought to life through various types and methods of 3D printing. Inevitably expensive 3D printers will be printing 3D printers giving birth to cheaper and cheaper yet more advanced replications of themselves until, like mobile phones everyone has a small one in the house and large one in the garage. At this point physical goods are ultimately prone to the very same problems observed in music, movies and software. Money loses its capacity to reasonably ration goods and services that have a technological process advanced beyond the capacity of businesses and governments to manage using money. Goods such as these, that have lost price sensitivity due to the ease of replication of which piracy is merely an early symptom, are advancing towards a more superior Superconsumption model and governments have to re-strategise how they are sold or risk killing off creativity and industry. Pricing is no longer an effective tool for businesses and sellers at this stage since the public can gain them practically for free or way below the production cost of the owner of the patent or copyright.

The solution then becomes to make these goods and services downloadable and accessible globally to the public at what would seem "for free"when in fact what consumers are exchanging for the product is choice. This strategy allows governments, business and sellers to retain the fair value of these goods and services in that the consumer who receives the product is paid or earns it by merely choosing it, while the manufacturer or seller in this model is then automatically credited with the actual price or value of the good restoring lost income to sellers; which in turn flows predominantly into the manufacturing process where businesses still purchase equipment and other factors of production normally, that is, by paying for them with the income earned from consumers buying or paying for their products (which appear free) using choice. The allocation system changes, effectively advancing the economic model. This would be the effective solution to piracy and would channel significant income to individuals and businesses selling these products giving them the resources they need to further improve what they offer. A software developer, television and movie studio or musician would gain by governments ensuring an economic system is in place where they are automatically credited with the fair value of any purchase of their product anywhere in the world and since the consumer is credited for the choice they made the purchase seems free effectively out-competing piracy and eliminating the main capacity of piracy to erode earnings. Piracy is merely a symptom of the need for governments to advance their financial systems, economic models and will have no solution until they do. New  more powerful economic models such as a Superconsumption model are inevitable and governments will have to explore them to prevent stagnation in productivity and industry. It will also ensure that the wealth required to further enhance these industries finds its way into the hands of businesses, researchers, artists and related industries.

Businesses will thrive and Humanity will not suffer from lack of resources in future

The poverty we see today will not continue into the future. Humanity will thrive. Science and technology will create very high standards of living. However, having everything it wants may create new challenges for humanity that have to do with having too much rather than too little.

When a Superconsumption model advances into a Utopian model human beings serve only three basic purposes: firstly to consume, secondly creative expression and thirdly to procreate in order to naturally increase population size, spread that population as far and wide as is possible to prevent extinction and to  increase consumption in order to continually grow industry. This is interesting as it is quite different from the type of planning seen in countries today.

To an economy the purpose and real value of an individual human being from birth is to supply a unique consumption fingerprint. This "finger print" is the individual's choice. Human choice is consequently more valuable than money. Governments therefore will have to act to remove money as a barrier to consumption to all household goods or products that fall in certain categories without doing away with price or value, which is passed on from the household level to the industry. Human choice will consequently determine the allocation of wealth to the superstructure of industry. Indeed many individual choices when put together coincide since many people like the same products, but no two people will tend to have exactly the same basket of goods and services. Nevertheless, the reality remains that human beings do not see this consumption as their reason for existence. In fact this is one distinguishing factor between human intelligence and AI. Human beings are born generally without knowing what purpose their existence serves. Through life experience a human being persistently tries to find that purpose. This lack of predictability pushes the boundaries of satisfaction in human beings and nourishes human existence, but can also have a dark side arising from a lack of fulfillment all of which personify what it is to be human. AI on the other hand will be created by human beings to serve a specific purpose, for example, drive a car, clean an office building, and so on. Regardless of what an AI does, even if it is AI developing and producing other AIs; it is created with a purpose, even if that purpose is leisure or procrastination. The ethos of satisfaction for any form of intelligence be it AI or not is easy to fulfill or work around if there is a pre-existing purpose or that purpose can be definitively reprogrammed from time to time. AIs are likely to have an IQ tailored to the task at hand, will likely be easier to understand and less emotionally complicated than human beings. Consequently, they will not for the most part face the inner turmoil concerning direction, that ultimately contributes to what makes a human being human. 

In a Utopian model consumption is very aggressive since money is no longer a general barrier to consumption, rather people earn money from consumption or are paid by the goods and services they consume. Population size is therefore what ultimately drives economic growth. In this model, for the first time, human beings become more valuable to governments than assets and money. Since scarcity is no longer a major concern governments would rather have very large populations in order to generate markets. They will push for the highest possible population growth rates by discouraging contraception and encouraging a greater number of children per family in order to fuel economic growth. Since the only limitation to population growth is geographic space to accommodate very large populations the push by governments to find land and living space will become intense. This is when humanity is likely to seriously see the beginning of the establishment of new colonies beyond earth to facilitate unhindered natural growth in population sizes or markets.

Sunday, 29 May 2016

The G7 and the Currency Barrier

What the world needs is a few good men and women who are prepared to begin to make decisions that will lead to greater trade, a reduction in poverty and a significant improvement in the outlook of the global economy. A key issue that currently straddles trade in the global economy is the straight jacket created by the existence of just a few hard currencies that can be used directly in international trade. These are a select few and are an integral part of the G7, they include the United States dollar, British Pound, the European Unions Euro and Japan's Yen. Recently, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) moved to add China's Yuan as one of its reserve currencies. Having written an article concerning the recent and ongoing inflation crisis in Zambia it is good news to hear that China has been inducted into the IMF's reserve currency portfolio. Inclusion is the right direction. However, the G7 being comprised of the wealthiest and most industrialized nations on the globe represents both an opportunity and a hindrance to the capacity of leaders to make decisions that will significantly impact global economic development. It must inevitably be asked whether the induction and creation of a new "slave master" by the IMF is truly noble and worthy of genuine praise. Is the IMF not simply promoting a slave currency to a master currency while other nations in Africa and across the world continue to suffer from exclusion? Is this the answer to the question humanity needs addressed? The real problem is how to create a genuine and truly greater inclusiveness and financial equality between nations and the governments of the world that developing countries sorely need.

G7: Masters of the new financial slave trade implemented
through the currency barrier.

The G7 and the Perpetuation of Financial Slavery

G7 members preside over a currency system
that enslaves poorer nations and weaker economies
consequently perpetuating poverty in countries across the world.

G7 nations and countries in general with internationally traded hard currencies are no different from the notorious European slave traders of the 18th Century sitting on a financial empire, setting up plantations in the Americas and fueling the demand for slaves in Africa. 

What is unfortunate is that modern day civilizations, nations and governments have today been led to believe that they must "earn" their right to be human beings. In other words their currencies must meet certain standards or reach certain criteria to be "worthy" of being a reserve currency and more importantly being able to demand goods and services directly from the international market without the requirement of first being exchanged for a reserve currency. This is evident in the fact that the government of Zambia, as does any government of a country with a slave currency, believes that it must and is indeed duly forced to invest in the export sector and diversify its economy for the sole purpose of having sufficient foreign exchange earnings to survive. This belief is inculcated in the minds of nations with slave currencies all the way up to tertiary levels of education. What this does is create a duped, willing modern day slave, whose subjugation has been deeply imbued in education and psychology to the extent that they work the fields for master currencies for free in the belief they are liberating themselves from economic poverty when in fact they are only tightening the iron collar of financial servitude around their necks. These iron collars are tied to a chain held by master currencies. These master currencies are owned by the governments and leaders of the G7 that today are beginning to represent everything that is wrong with the global financial system.

No person on earth has to prove they are worthy of being a human being. This worth is a right gained at birth. It is the role of nations and governments the world over to protect the sanctity of humanity through this belief. It is a fundamental purpose for which the United Nations exists. It has become the very bedrock of modern civilization. For anyone to say or believe that nations must prove themselves or earn the right to be reserve currencies and importantly to be able to demand goods and services directly from the international market without the requirement that they first be exchanged is no different from anyone stating that a child born today is not a human being, must first prove or "earn" the fact that they are a human being before they qualify for basic dignity and fundamental human rights. Recently at the High-Level Conference on the International Monetary System in Zurich, Federal Bank of New York President William Dudley in an article written by Katy Burne and published in the Wall Street Journal is said to have implied that the "stature of a reserve currency must be earned". In the article Mr. Dudley voices positive ideas about inclusiveness when it comes to which national currencies may become reserve currencies. However, this logic underlines the thinking in financial systems controlled by state agents of master currencies like the G7. This is an elitist view often held and used by those who enjoy freedoms that are exclusive to justify why those who deserve the same freedoms must continue to be enslaved should not receive them. No person “earns” the right to be a human being and treated as one. Similarly no nations currency “earns” the right to be internationally and directly tradable, it is a natural right, or in religious terms - a God given right. As long as the situation remains the same developed nations such as the Group of 7 will remain guilty of promoting a financial system where there will exist slave currencies and master currencies that are unlawful, criminal, immoral and directly abrogate the United Nations Charter on Human Rights.

It is a well-known fact that the end of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was not based on a simplistic moral decision, it was also fundamentally a business decision motivated by the fact that European powers scrambling for Africa realised that the man-power being exported to plantations in the Americas would be required to labour in newly acquired colonies. Ending the slave trade was a business decision which relied on moral views to reach a noble objective. Similarly developed countries forfeit billions of dollars each year to lost sales as a result of lower levels of demand created by the currency barrier. When a business or individual in Zambia or any country holds funds that are rightfully earned they have a right to demand goods and services directly without having to resort to looking for forex. If they wish to purchase US$5,000 worth of goods from a business in the United States it is the role of the Bank of Zambia to facilitate the purchase in Kwacha and for the United States Federal Reserve to facilitate the dollars with which the sale is executed. In the current corrupt financial system an agricultural company in Zambia that holds ZMK46,500 and desires to purchase US$5,000 worth of agricultural equipment from a business in the United States cannot do so because there is inadequate foreign exchange in the domestic economy or due to the fact that the value of the Kwacha it holds is eroded or erased for the same reason. This represents a loss of productivity for the business in Zambia and a loss in sales for the company in the United States. Consequently the United States Federal Reserve rather than a facilitator of trade, has become a stumbling block to increased economic growth in the United States. It uses a fictitious and contrived barrier, namely the currency barrier to prevent businesses in the United States from selling their products to buyers in other countries with currencies that are not directly tradable.  This fictitious barrier is fraudulent, used for extortion and represents a form of institutional racketeering applied by the US Federal Reserve at the expense of US businesses, the US economy and the American People. It can be described as a State sanctioned, prosecutable Federal criminal offense that costs the United States economy billions of dollars annually in lost revenues. Businesses in the United States made aware of this racket can sue the US Government and its Federal Reserve to recover the billion-dollar real cost in earnings this barrier or racket costs them. In fact the potential liabilities posed by seeking this kind of judicial redress, if taken seriously, makes it more sensible to end the currency barrier and make all currencies fundamentally tradable than to risk the liabilities of leaving the currency system as it is. The fact that G7 countries are engaged in this criminal racket that contravenes modern day moral views on human rights is indicative of the need to change the currency system. Many EU member states have very strong positions on human rights and yet have been co-opted into abrogating human rights by the EU's application of the Euro as a master currency that creates economic conditions that promote and perpetuate misery and poverty in poorer countries that are burdened with slave currencies that are not internationally communicable.  

Currency Barrier: The G7 violates human rights

Poor nations today face a crisis. A crisis of poverty amongst riches. When both a developed and a developing a nation's education system, its schools and universities inculcate a flawed understanding of the world, its economy and financial system the result is a doctrine implemented by the compromised who are unaware of their unnecessary and undeserved servitude or the fact that they have been made complicit in it. A university or lecturer that teaches the financial flaws inherent in the currency barrier to the malleable minds of students is no different from the slave masters hand or foreman who whips or cajoles slaves to labour in the fields on the belief it for their own benefit. For nations and their governments to believe their currencies are inadequate and they must export raw materials, goods and services primarily to earn reserve currencies to be deemed worthy of participating in international trade is no different from declaring publicly that their citizens, their entire national populations are inferior, less than human and deserving of being poorer members of the global community, an example of human trafficking on an unprecedented scale. If this is the case then what was the entire point of the political liberation struggle? What was gained from independence, especially if you are still morally and physically a financial slave? Why contribute and submit to a currency barrier that makes your people unwittingly have to work twice as hard yet earn twice less than the real value of their labour and productivity because, financially, reserve currencies see them as less than equal, less than human. Its important to know what to lobby for and where to stand your ground. The current inability of leaders in developing countries to see this link between poverty and an exploitative knowledge base, when it comes to the financial system, and campaign for a better way is unfortunate. Using this knowledge processes developing nations are unwittingly trafficked into financial servitude by hard currencies and the governments that wield them. 

The fact that diverse positive changes can be decided by a handful of remarkable leaders is an asset. However, it is also a stumbling block if leaders cannot make decisions that move the global economy to greater inclusion due to the belief that this will compromise their unique position as advanced economic powers and the gains this gives them. The benefits of having an exclusive reserve currency or master currency are no difference from the feeling of superiority or pride of being a slave owner and master of another human being. Being a form of self-immolation for developed nations, it is almost purely an unnecessary psychological need when compared to the financial losses businesses incur as a result of the currency barrier. The currency barrier that prevents developing countries like Zambia from using their domestic currencies to directly demand goods and services from the international market not only hurts economic growth in Zambia, Africa and the global economy, but also significantly curtails the potential growth in demand for goods and services available in G7 countries. 

In addition to this, as previously explained, in the earlier article,  the currency barrier creates a slave/master relationship in the modern day financial system that is a gross violation of human rights. The fact that a system that violates human rights can be coveted by a few industrialized countries that not only ultimately hurts growth in their economies but also creates untold poverty and suffering in countries outside this group stifles global trade, economic growth and international financial progress. It is myopic and does not make business or economic sense in the modern world. Leaders of the G7 need to revisit the currency system and make it unconditionally inclusive as this will not only dramatically increase growth in their economies but lead to a more just and vibrant global economy. Being considered leaders in the global economy entails that these countries set the conditions and terms by which the world trades. Institutions such as the IMF and even the United Nations cannot realistically be expected to make decisions concerning the currency barrier and its impact on economic growth and violation of relevant human rights without the nod from leaders of a body such as the G7 and any positive decisions cannot be made without access to the information that reveals the extent of the problem. For instance for the IMF to include the Yuan as a reserve currency may point to a move to a more inclusive financial system but it still does not help ease the suffering created by the currency barrier faced by many excluded countries. It consequently becomes like the admittance of China to an exclusive club of elites willing to maintain the status quo for themselves despite it being disadvantageous to their economies and countries outside the group. The world does not need more master slavers, what it needs is unconditional equality between master and slave currencies.

In Conclusion

Understandably G7 members and affiliate countries have made great contributions to the ongoing development and enhancement of human rights. The focus of this article on the currency barrier as a human rights violation is not intended to in any way to cause offense or demean what these nations have achieved and continue to contribute to human rights, but rather to bring greater awareness to the work that remains to be done by G7 members to improve the currency system and move it away from discrimination towards greater inclusiveness, equity and justice.

The United Nations Human Rights Council

It is incumbent on the United Nations and its Human Rights Council to uphold human rights as they pertain to the financial and currency system.

On October 24, 2015 (Zambia’s official Independence Day) I wrote to the Human Rights Council following their prescribed complaint procedure concerning this matter. This complaint (for which a response is yet to be received) is attached below [excluding personal details]:

Human Rights Council
Complaint Procedure Form

-          You are kindly requested to submit your complaint in writing in one of the six official UN languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish) and to use these languages in any future correspondence;
-          Anonymous complaints/ are not admissible;                            
-          It is recommended that your complaint does not exceed eight pages, excluding enclosures.                     
-          You are kindly requested not to use abusive or insulting language.

I. Information concerning the author (s) of the communication or the alleged victim (s) if other than the author

Individual                   Group of individuals                 NGO                  Other
Last name:
First name(s):
Address for correspondence on this complaint:
Submitting the complaint: On the author’s own behalf:  
On behalf of other persons:  (The Zambian People and all Peoples of all nations disadvantaged by the currency system.

II. Information on the State concerned
Name of the State concerned and, as applicable, name of public authorities responsible for the alleged violation(s):
Name of the States concerned:
United States of America,
European Union

Name of public authorities responsible for the alleged violation(s):
Government of the United States of America and the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States of America (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System),
 Member Governments of the European Union and the European Central Bank (ECB)

III. Facts of the complaint and nature of the alleged violation(s)

The complaint procedure addresses consistent patterns of gross and reliably attested violations of all human rights and all fundamental freedoms occurring in any part of the world and under any circumstances.
[Please detail, in chronological order, the facts and circumstances of the alleged violations including dates, places and alleged perpetrators and how you consider that the facts and circumstances described violate your rights or that of the concerned person(s).]                    

The requirement the Zambian People, their Government and the governments of nations producing and holding domestic currencies including the Zambian Kwacha that before they may import goods and services and/or  access goods and services on the international market the domestic currency must first be exchanged for a hard currency being the United States Dollar and/or the European Union’s Euro. This requirement is a barrier that violates several statutes of the Declaration of Human Rights.  These violations are as follows

A violation of Article 1:

(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)

The fact that domestic currencies cannot directly demand goods and services on the international market without first having to be converted into a hard currency sic the United States Dollar and/or the European Union’s Euro gives an unfair advantage to those able to print this currency such as the US Federal Reserve Bank and ECB or those who hold their currencies in a reserve such as a private or state bank who are able to purchase goods and services from the international market directly without hindrance, barrier or obstacle. This barrier that is placed on domestic currencies is an organised system of exclusion that creates inequality in the ability of Zambians and all other peoples and countries that are unable to print hard currency, acquire or hold sufficient amounts of it to satisfy the demand for imports by which domestic consumer populations may make purchases from the international market. This creates inequality between those human beings, governments and institutions, that are able to print, acquire or hold a hard currency, sic the United States Dollar/ ECB’s Euro and those human beings, governments and institutions that are unable to do so; who must first convert their domestic currency into the hard currency before they can make purchases on the international market. This unequal access is a violation of Article 1 which states all human beings are born free and equal. Access to and the use of goods and services affects the physical, psychological; social and psychosomatic wellbeing of human beings. These goods and services include medicines, education, clothing, food, vehicles, communications and industrial equipment etc that may determine economic well-being, individual life or death, and suffering or joy. A barrier to human beings, governments and institutions accessing this well-being is a denial of their dignity. The currency barrier is a human creation created by governments and central banks. It can therefore be revoked and replaced with a rule, system and corresponding ideology that allows all domestic currencies in the world to be unconditionally exchangeable. The choice to maintain this system with a currency barrier goes against reason and conscience and is an example of human beings not acting toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood, even though they claim they have agreed to do so by being signatories to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.

Violation of Article 4

(No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms)

A country, institution or person that has access to hard currency be it by the ability to print it, loans, and other methods is able to demand goods directly from the international market without having to perform any further work. Countries, institutions and persons with domestic currencies that work to earn this currency are required to first identify, produce and sell products on the international market in order to earn foreign exchange through exports. This additional labour represents a form of servitude. The need for the Zambian Kwacha and all domestic currencies to first be converted into hard currency, the US Dollar and/or the European Union’s Euro creates a financial system and condition in which countries, their peoples and institutions that cannot access foreign exchange are forced to work to produce exportable goods and services in order to gain the hard currency with which to become eligible to purchase goods and services on the international market. This barrier to accessing hard currency creates forced labour, necessitated by the need to earn foreign exchange:  For a Zambian to live he or she must first work and earn an income which is paid in the domestic currency (Zambian Kwacha). However, since the currency barrier does not allow this currency to directly demand goods and services from the international market, Zambians are forced to work once again to produce exportable goods and services that will be sold for foreign exchange. The initial labour the human being applied to earn Zambian Kwacha or any similar domestic currency around the world is thus negated by the system’s refusal to allow the domestic currency earned to directly purchase goods and services on the international market. This dismissal of the value of labour represents a form of discrimination.  Only a slave or human being in a state of servitude can work and have the work done determined as valueless or free. The financial system consequently uses a barrier that prevents domestic currencies from accessing goods and services directly on the international market, which in turn induces forced labour to access foreign exchange through exports in the nations, countries, and institutions faced with the problem of acquiring goods and services on the international market. This slavery and servitude is maintained by countries able to print hard currencies and their central banks including the Government of the United States of America and its Federal Reserve Bank through application of the US dollar, the European Union and the European Central Bank  through application of the Euro. These currencies and the systems by which they are administered represent a gross violation of human rights. They encumber the ability of labour to sustain its value anywhere in the world and introduce a preference system that discriminates against those working and earning domestic currencies. It represents an immoral use use of the financial system to gain unfair advantage over other human beings by engaging them in systemic servitude and slavery for economic gain.

In order for the domestic and international financial system to conform to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights it is mandatory that there be no discrimination between currencies. This may only be achieved by a mechanism whereby governments and their central banks are in agreement that their currencies are unconditionally interchangeable and that no domestic currency anywhere in the world shall be barred from being exchanged for another; neither shall it be barred from directly accessing goods and services on the international market with the guarantor of this being central banks and the governments they represent. Without this principle there arises inequality, forced labour, servitude and slavery that are a very serious violation of human rights across the world outlined in this complaint that must forthwith be addressed by the United Nations Human Rights Council.

Nations forced [to] work to export goods and services in order to earn foreign exchange become slave nations and the domestic currencies they hold  such as Zambian Kwacha  can be designated slave currencies.  Those governments and nations such as the United States and the European Union and their central banks exempt from this servitude, able to print hard currencies can be considered master countries and hard currencies they use place nations unable to do so in servitude. This represents a gross violation of human rights that affects the ability of governments with slave currencies to manage their economies in a fair financial environment.

Violation of Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel inhuman or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Since the 1st of January 2015 the value of the Zambian Kwacha has been in a state of decline as a result of depreciation that is a direct result of the currency barrier that prevents the Zambian Kwacha from directly purchasing goods and services from the international market. In order to restore the value of its currency the Zambian government and people are forced to labour in areas of productivity that will yield exported goods and services. However, in order to do so they need to be able to purchase equipment, assets, machinery, raw materials from the international market. This creates a vicious cycle of servitude where lack of the ability to access hard currencies makes it difficult to gain the material resources with which to produce exportable products. This consequently creates a form of slavery that is inescapable except through a rigorous disassembly of the system itself. It is a system that inequality, economic bondage, violation of fundamental human rights of the Zambian people and all people caught up in this systemic servitude demands be addressed by the United Nations through its Human Rights agencies.

Zambia may have gained political independence on 24th October 1964, however, until the inequality, servitude and injustice created by the currency barrier and its implementers is removed Zambia and its people will never know economic independence. The consequences of these gross violations of human rights applied through the financial system by way of hard currencies and barriers to access are a consummate erosion of the value of the labour of Zambian people through depreciation in the past to date and specifically in the year 2015 where the Zambian Kwacha has lost more than half its real value. This is the case simply by a desire for the Zambian people to access goods and services on the international market which is prevented by a “man made”  barrier that prevents domestic currencies and hard currencies from being unconditionally exchangeable. This pointless and discriminatory erosion of the value of labour is a serious violation of human rights as it puts into official space a financial and currency system where one government and its central bank by means of the method of application of its hard currency may wipe out the real work done by the masses of the Zambian people and any given national population around the world in a similar position. This can be considered nothing less than a grievous violation of human rights as by way of negation only in a slave/master system can one human being reduce or render valueless the real labour and productivity of another human being through the enforcement of a dubious idea imposed on those unable to determine outcomes in what is an immoral and dehumanising currency system.

Zambians work, invest and produce yet find that what they earn is reduced in value by the manner in which the system governing domestic and hard currencies is applied by governments and administered through the banking and financial system; this is both degrading and dehumanising. Loans taken in hard currency to purchase assets and property can cause people earning in domestic currencies to suddenly and without warning find themselves unable to afford to repay these loans as a result of the loss of value of domestic currency they earn leading to banks repossessing the said assets and property. This is a direct violation of Article 17 Part 2 which states that No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. The inequality between hard currency and domestic currencies is causing depreciation in Zambia which reduces affordability. Zambian workers have found they can no longer purchase the same basket of goods and services, this includes shelter, school fees, food, medicines and other basic and luxury goods and services human beings require to sustain their very lives and feel dignified about their existence. The effects of this barrier that creates slave currencies are no different from indecent treatment, torture, cruel and inhuman punishment meted out by captors of those who have been placed in bondage or servitude. The punishment and torture is both psychological and physical. The lack of the ability to import medicines for hospitals, expertise, food stuffs that leads to disease, hunger and poverty is no different from torture at the hands of a captor.

The United States and the European Union are both highly respected. This complaint is not intended to tarnish the great strides and contributions these governments have made in human rights in many areas of human endeavour. It may be the case that they themselves are unaware of the negative externalities of the present currency system and the barriers it has in place and how these are hurting the people and economies of less developed nations like Zambia. It is hoped that this complaint, if handled prudently by the relevant UN authorities can usher in a new more enlightened debate, approach and system by which these currencies are governed and applied that is more in line with modern views on equity, equality and justice.  

IV. Exhaustion of domestic remedies

In order to protect the Zambian people from the consequences of depreciation the Zambian government through the central bank (Bank of Zambia) and Ministry of Finance engaged open market operations involving the release of United States Dollars into the Zambian economy through the banking and financial system. This has resulted in the Zambian Kwacha making small gains against the US Dollar. The government has over the years encouraged diversification of exports away from the dependence on copper exports as a means of  gaining hard currencies. The Zambian government has also attempted to raise hard currency through the successful issuance of bonds. These approaches though valiant in their attempt to protect the Zambian people have proven futile in halting the tide of depreciation that has affect the domestic currency. The underlying fact is that there is little any government can do to protect its economy and people from the currency barrier. If governments through their Treasuries, Ministries of Finance and Central Banks agreed to make domestic and hard currencies unconditionally exchangeable the slavery, servitude and economic problems the Zambian people and people across the world in a similar situation are affected by would simply not exist. This slavery and servitude is created through the mis-application of hard currencies and the governments that issue them, barriers to exchange and access are a gross violation of fundamental human rights outlined in this complaint and application that it is incumbent upon the United Nations to put an end to this servitude. It is hereby called upon to investigate this complaint and broker an equal, fair and just relationship between the Zambian Kwacha, all domestic currencies in existence around the world and hard currencies in order to bring this slavery, servitude, degrading and inhumane treatment of the Zambian people and all populations existing in countries with slave currencies to an end.   Governments and the currencies they issue must act responsibly, within human rights and live up to the need for all people to have an equal access to human decency through the appropriate use of currencies through financial systems. Article 8 of the Declaration of Human Rights makes it mandatory that the United Nations perform its function and defend the Zambian people, and all people similarly affected by currency barriers, across the world. The UN should not allow currencies and the financial system should not be allowed to spread prejudice of this kind, neither should it allow ignorance of this reality to remain a key method by which it is allowed to remain unchallenged.

Granted, it is understood that this complaint is an unusual one. However, its underlying truths carry merit and it is hoped that the authorities into whom this complaint is entrusted will take it seriously and thereby shed light on the suffering of the millions of people around the world who are affected by how domestic and hard currencies are applied in today’s global financial system such that governments the world over may be encouraged to introduce a fair, more just and more equitable system to replace the substandard one currently in place.

V. Submission of communication to other human rights bodies

This matter is a first submission, this first submission being to the United Nations Human Rights Council.

VI. Request for confidentiality

[In case the communication complies with the admissibility criteria set forth in Council resolution 5/1, kindly note that it will be transmitted to the State concerned so as to obtain the views of the latter on the allegations of violations.]
[Please state whether you would
like your identity or any specific information contained in the complaint to be kept confidential.]
Request for confidentiality (Please tick as appropriate):     Yes                         No
Please indicate which information you would like to be kept confidential

Date: 24th October 2015                                             Signature: …………………….
N.B. The blanks under the various sections of this form indicate where your responses are required. You should take as much space as you need to set out your responses. Your complaint should not exceed eights pages.

VII. Checklist of supporting documents

Economic data that backs this complaint is available abundantly online and in relevant media on Zambia’s economic performance.

[Please provide copies (not original) of supporting documents (kindly note that these documents will not be returned) in one of the six UN official languages.
- Decisions of domestic courts and authorities on the claim made (a copy of the relevant national legislation is also helpful):
- Complaints sent to any other procedure mentioned in section V (and any decisions taken under that procedure):
- Any other evidence or supporting documents deemed necessary: ]

VIII. Where to send your communications?
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Human Rights Council Branch-Complaint Procedure Unit
OHCHR- Palais Wilson
United Nations Office at Geneva
CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
Fax: (+41 22) 917 90 11